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SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE, SERIAL KILLER TRADING CARDSSERIAL KILLER TRADING CARDS Newest Serial Killer Articles Newest Serial Killer Articles Newest Serial Killer Articles SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE


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Newest Serial Killer Articles RETURN TO TOP

Incall: The Making Of An American Serial Killer
WildBluePress
Serial Killer Reading List
Also known as Oklahoma
The Killer Castle
Interview With Cannibal Killer Issei Sagawa
Top 4 Modern Cases Of Cannibalism
Senseless Murder Of Children
The Music Of Charles Manson
Killers History Is Trying To Forget
All Those Missing People
Manson And The Process Church
Sexual Sadists
Serial Killer Good Deeds
The Minds of Serial Killers
Serial Killer Methods of Disposal
The History of Serial Killers
Serial Killer Victim of Choice
My Experience With Richard Ramirez
Serial Killer Coincidental Catchings
Speed Freak Killers
Arthur Shawcross Interview
The Hand Of Death Cult
Pleading Insanity
Brain Fingerprinting Testing
Female Serial Killers
How to Survive a Serial Killer
Sympathetic Serial Killers
Serial Killers Who Got Away
The Real and the Imagined
Serial Killers In Ohio
Occupations of Serial killers
Serial Killers And Hiding bodies
Psychological Phases of Serial Killers
Serial Killers and Astrology
Last Words From Death Row
Serial Killers And Occult Murders
Infamous Murder Houses
Early Released Serial Killers
Grisliest Axe Murderers
BTK Killer Trivia
Killers Who Changed Their Minds
From Hero To Homicide
The Last Thing You Would Expect
People Who Survived Serial Killers


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Charles ALBRIGHT
Rodney ALCALA
Howard Arthur ALLEN
Richard ANGELO
Amy ARCHER-GILLIGAN
Benjamin ATKINS
Joe BALL
Velma BARFIELD
Herb BAUMEISTER
Martha BECK
Bloody BENDERS
Robert BERDELLA
David BERKOWITZ
Kenneth BIANCHI
Richard BIEGENWALD
Jake BIRD
Arthur Gary BISHOP
Lawrence BITTAKER
Terry BLAIR
William BONIN
Angelo BUONO, Jr.
Dallen BOUNDS
Gary Ray BOWLES
Briley BROTHERS
Jerry BRUDOS
Judy BUENOANO
Carol M. BUNDY
Ted BUNDY
Ricardo CAPUTO
Harvey CARIGNAN
David CARPENTER
Richard CHASE
Thor Nis CHRISTIANSEN
Joseph CHRISTOPHER
Douglas CLARK
Cynthia COFFMAN
Alton COLEMAN
John Norman COLLINS
Daniel CONAHAN
Rory Enrique CONDE
Ray and Faye COPELAND
Dean CORLL
Juan CORONA
Tony COSTA
Richard COTTINGHAM
Juan COVINGTON
Andre CRAWFORD
Charles CULLEN
Jeffrey DAHMER
Thomas DILLON
Westley Allan DODD
Ronald DOMINIQUE
Nannie DOSS
Brian DUGAN
Joseph E. DUNCAN III
Paul DUROUSSEAU
Edward EDWARDS
Mack Ray EDWARDS
Walter E. ELLIS
Scott ERSKINE
Donald Leroy EVANS
Gary EVANS
Richard EVONITZ
Larry EYLER
Raymond FERNANDEZ
Albert FISH
Wayne Adam FORD
Bobby Jack FOWLER
Kendall FRANCOIS
Joseph Paul FRANKLIN
John Wayne GACY
Gerald GALLEGO
Carlton GARY
Donald Henry Peewee GASKINS
Alfred GAYNOR
Ed GEIN
Janie Lou GIBBS
Bertha GIFFORD
Kristen GILBERT
Sean Vincent GILLIS
Lorenzo GILYARD
Harvey GLATMAN
Billy GLAZE
Billy GOHL
Mark GOUDEAU
David Alan GORE
Dana Sue GRAY
Vaughn GREENWOOD
Samuel GREEN
Belle GUNNESS
Anna Marie HAHN
William HANCE
Robert HANSEN
Donald HARVEY
Charles Ray HATCHER
Dale HAUSNER
Linda HAZZARD
William HEIRENS
Elmer Wayne HENLEY
Loren HERZOG
Johann Otto HOCH
Dr. H. H. HOLMES
Waneta HOYT
Michael HUGHES
Leslie IRVIN
Phillip Carl JABLONSKI
Keith Hunter JESPERSON
Martha Ann JOHNSON
Milton JOHNSON
Vincent JOHNSON
Genene JONES
Jim JONES
John JOUBERT
Joseph KALLINGER
Patrick KEARNEY
Edmund KEMPER
Israel KEYES
Scott Lee KIMBALL
Roger KIBBE
Tillie KLIMEK
Paul John KNOWLES
Anthony KIRKLAND
Randy Steven KRAFT
Timothy KRAJCIR
Peter KUDZINOWSKI
Richard KUKLINSKI
Leonard LAKE
Delphine LALAURIE
Derrick Todd LEE
Bobbie Joe LONG
Michael Lee LOCKHART
Henry Lee LUCAS
Orville Lynn MAJORS
Richard Laurence MARQUETTE
Lee Roy MARTIN
Rhonda Belle MARTIN
David MASON
David Edward MAUST
Kenneth MCDUFF
David MEIRHOFER
Stephen MORIN
Frederick MORS
John Allen MUHAMMAD
Herbert MULLIN
Joseph NASO
Robert NIXON
Earle NELSON
Charles NG
Marie NOE
Roy NORRIS
Gordon NORTHCOTT
Carl PANZRAM
Gerald PARKER
Louise PEETE
Steven Brian PENNELL
Christopher PETERSON
Craig PRICE
Harry POWERS
Cleophus PRINCE JR.
Marion Albert PRUETT
Dorothea PUENTE
Dennis RADER
Richard RAMIREZ
Melvin REES
Paul Dennis REID
Ángel Maturino RESÉNDIZ
Gary RIDGWAY
Joel RIFKIN
Harvey Miguel ROBINSON
John Edward ROBINSON
Dayton Leroy ROGERS
Glen Edward ROGERS
Danny ROLLING
Michael Bruce ROSS
Robert ROZIER
Kimberly Clark SAENZ
Efren SALDIVAR
Altemio SANCHEZ
Gerard John SCHAEFER
Charles SCHMID
Heriberto SEDA
Tommy Lynn SELLS
Arthur SHAWCROSS
Lydia SHERMAN
Wesley SHERMANTINE
Anthony Allen SHORE
Robert SHULMAN
Daniel Lee SIEBERT
Robert Joseph SILVERIA, Jr.
Lemuel SMITH
Morris SOLOMON Jr.
Anthony SOWELL
Timothy Wilson SPENCER
Jack Owen SPILLMAN
Edward SPREITZER
Gerald STANO
Cary STAYNER
Paul Michael STEPHANI
William SUFF
Michael SWANGO
James SWANN
Joseph TABORSKY
John Floyd THOMAS, Jr.
Ottis TOOLE
Jane TOPPAN
Maury TRAVIS
Chester TURNER
Henry Louis WALLACE
Faryion WARDRIP
Karl F. WARNER
Coral Eugene WATTS
Nathaniel WHITE
Christopher WILDER
Scott WILLIAMS
Wayne WILLIAMS
Shirley WINTERS
Aileen WUORNOS
Robert LEE YATES
Robert ZARINSKY


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Christine ADEWUNMI
Sara Maria ALDRETE
Nasra Yussef Mohammed AL-ENEZI
Patricia Taylor ALLANSON
Beverley Gail ALLITT
Angelica Salazar ALVAREZ
Maria Isabella AMAYA
Lyda Catherine AMBROSE
Michele Kristen ANDERSON
Amy ARCHER-GILLIGAN
Gertraud ARZBERGER
Francisca BALLESTEROS
Margie Velma BARFIELD
Juana BARRAZA
Martha BECK
Marie Alexandrine BECKER
Amanda BENNETT
Marie BESNARD
Amy BISHOP
Elfriede BLAUENSTEINER
Cecile BOMBEEK
Lizzie Andrew BORDEN
Kathy BOUDIN
The Marquise de BRINVILLIERS
Mary Ann BRITLAND
Mary Ann BROUGH
Debra Denise BROWN
Denise Dianna BUCHANAN
Judias Anna BUENOANO
Dora Luz BUENROSTRO
Erin Michelle CAFFEY
Angela CAMACHO
Martha "Patty" CANNON
Socorro CARO
Leonarda CIANCIULLI
Cynthia Lynn COFFMAN
Patricia COLUMBO
Faye Della COPELAND
Tammy L. CORBETT
Natasha Wallen CORNET
Carol CORONADO
Mary Ann COTTON
Mary Frances CREIGHTON
Anna CUNNINGHAM
Rebecca DAVID
Williamina DEAN
Daisy Louisa DE MELKER
Joanna DENNEHY
Catherine DESHAYES
Phoolan DEVI
Edlira DOBRUSHI
Nannie DOSS
Amelia Elizabeth DYER
Gilberta ESTRADA
Ellen ETHERIDGE
Susan Dianne EUBANKS
Christine FALLING
Timea FALUDI
Nancy FARRER
Júlia FAZEKAS
Constance M. FISHER
Lulonda Lynn FLETT
Kathleen Megan FOLBIGG
Priscilla Joyce FORD
Antoinette FRANK
Ethel Mae FRANKEN
Irina Viktorovna GAIDAMACHUK
Seema Mohan GAVIT
Tillie KLIMEK
Janie Lou GIBBS
Bertha GIFFORD
Kristen GILBERT
Delfina and Maria de Jesus GONZALEZ
Gesche Margarethe GOTTFRIED
Gwendolyn Gail GRAHAM
Dana Sue GRAY
Josephine Victoria GRAY
Holly Ann GRIGSBY
Caroline GRILLS
Belle Sorenson GUNNESS Anna Marie HAHN
Tiffany HALL
Amanda HAMM
Lashaun Ternice HARRIS
Tonya Lynn HAWKS
Masumi HAYASHI
Susan Diane HENDRICKS
Olga HEPNAROVA
Khoua HER
Sabine HILSCHENZ
Myra HINDLEY
Megan K. HOGG
Mary Ann HOLDER
Karla Leanne HOMOLKA
Waneta Ethel HOYT
Megan HUNTSMAN
Miyuki ISHIKAWA
Banita M. JACKS
Mary Jane JACKSON
Vickie Dawn JACKSON
Helene JEGADO
Angela Jane JOHNSON
Martha Ann JOHNSON
Genene Anne JONES
Leisa JONES
Claudette Regina KIBBLE
Kanae KIJIMA
Sante KIMES
Judy D. KIRBY
Tillie KLIMEK
Marie Delphine LaLAURIE
Marilyn LEMAK
Diana LUMBRERA
Anjette Donovan LYLES
Sarah Jane MAKIN
Yiya MURANO
Sarah MALCOLM
Christine MALEVRE
MALLIKA
Martha MAREK
Enriqueta MARTI RIPOLLES
Rhonda Bell MARTIN
Melissa MARVIN
Dorothy Jean MATAJKE
G.R. McANICH
Kimberly Lagayle McCARTHY
Eleazar Paula MENDEZ
Silvia MERAZ MORENO
Blanche Taylor MOORE
Hiroko NAGATA
Kayoko NAKAI
Martha NEEDLE
Frances Elaine NEWTON
Sandi Dawn NIEVES
Marie NOE
Marianne NOLLE
Elsie NOLLEN
Aino NYKOPP-KOSKI
Diane ODELL
Junko OGATA
Emma OLIVER
Dagmar OVERBYE
Christine Marie PAOLILLA
Louise PEETE
Madame POPOVA
Dorothea Helen PUENTE
Mahin QADIRI
Sabine RADMACHER
Florence RANSOM
Florence REY
Theresa RIGGI
Andrea ROBERTS
Guadalupe RONQUILLO-OVALLE
Robin Lee ROW
Kimberly Clark SAENZ
Darya Nikolajevna SALTYKOVA
Jennifer SAN MARCO
Felicitas SANCHEZ AGUILLON
Gail SAVAGE
Kathryn Dempsey SCHOCH
Antoinette SCIERI
Lydia SHERMAN
Renuka Kiran SHINDE
Sanna SILLANPAA
Melanie Jane SMITH
Magdalena SOLIS
Della SORENSON
Diane Louise SPENCER
Miyoko SUMIDA
Maria Catherina SWANENBURG
Mary SYEBOLDT
Jessica TATA
Bobbie Sue TERRELL
Tonya THOMAS
Coleen M. THOMPSON
Marybeth TINNING
Jane TOPPAN
Gail TRAIT
Lyda TRUEBLOOD
Debra Sue TUGGLE
Lise Jane TURNER
Sophie Charlotte Elisabeth URSINUS
Le Thanh VAN
Angelica VAZQUEZ
Maria VELTEN
Neah VERMA
Louise VERMILYEA
Waltraud WAGNER
Annie WALTERS
Natashay Yvonne WARD
Margaret WATERS
Jeanne WEBER
Rosemary Pauline WEST
Sarah Jane WHITELING
Elisabeth WIESE
Dorothy WILLIAMS
Manling Tsang WILLIAMS
Stella Elizabeth WILLIAMSON
Catherine WILSON
Mary Elizabeth WILSON
Shirley WINTERS
Martha WISE
Catherine May WOOD
Martha WOODS
Aileen Carol WUORNOS
Barbara-Anne WYRZYKOWSKI
Tooba Mohammad YAHYA
Andrea Pia YATES
Maggie YOUNG
Lin YURU
Anna Margaretha ZWANZIGER



SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM AFGHANISTAN

Robert BALES
Abul DJABAR
Reza KHAN
Abdullah SHAH


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

John Earl BAUGHMAN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ARGENTINA

John Earl BAUGHMAN
Francisco Antonio LAUREANA
Carlos Eduardo ROBLEDO PUCH
Cayetano SANTOS GODINO

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM AUSTRALIA

Allan BAKER
Malcolm George BAKER
David John BIRNIE
Samuel Leonard BOYD
Gregory John BRAZEL
Martin John BRYANT
John Justin BUNTING
Eric Edgar COOKE
John Leslie COOMBES
Donato Anthony CORBO
Ashley Mervyn COULSTON
Douglas John Edwin CRABBE
Elmer Kyle CRAWFORD
Lloyd Maurice CROSBIE
Kevin CRUMP
Roger Kingsley DEAN
Frederick Bailey DEEMING
Paul Charles DENYER
Peter Norris DUPAS
Raymond EDMUNDS
Paul Anthony EVERS
Christopher Dale FLANNERY
Colin Richard FORMAN
Wade FRANKUM
Leonard John FRASER
John Wayne GLOVER
Paul Steven HAIGH
Matthew James HARRIS
Mark JEFFERIES
Edward "Ned" KELLY
Julian KNIGHT
Edward Joseph LEONSKI
Robert Paul LONG
John LYNCH
William MacDONALD
John MAKIN
Archibald Beattie McCAFFERTY
Ivan Robert Marko MILAT
James William MILLER
William Patrick MITCHELL
Alexander PEARCE
Derek Ernest PERCY
Robin REID
John ROWLES
Ronald Joseph RYAN
Joseph SCHWAB
John Myles SHARPE
Peter SHOOBRIDGE
George David SILVA
Arnold Karl SODEMAN
Mark Mala VALERA
Frank VITKOVIC
James Spyridon VLASSAKIS
Bevan Spencer VON EINEM
Robert Joe WAGNER
Carl Anthony WILLIAMS
Christopher Robin WORRELL
Huan Yun XIANG

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM AUSTRIA

Franz FUCHS
Josef GAUTSCH
Max GUFLER
Udo PROKSCH
Hugo SCHENK
Jack UNTERWEGER
Felix ZEHETNER

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM AZERBAIJAN

Farda GADIROV
Haji MAMMADOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM THE BAHAMAS

Cyril DARVILLE
Cordell FARRINGTON
Michiah SHOBEK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BANGLADESH

Munir HUSSAIN
Ershad SIKDER


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BELARUS

Gennady MIKHASEVICH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BELGIUM

Nordine AMRANI
Michel BELLEN
Marc DUTROUX
Michel FOURNIRET
Kim de GELDER
Ronald Alain JANSSEN
Remy LECRENIER
Andras PANDY
Ozan SELAMET
Michel VAN WIJNENDAELE


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BOLIVIA

Triston Jay AMERO

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA

Esad LANDZO


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BRAZIL

Andre Luis CASSIMIRO
Francisco Das CHAGAS Rodrigues B.
Marcelo COSTA DE ANDRADE
Genildo FERREIRA do Franca
Anisio FERREIRA de Sousa
Tiago Henrique GOMES DA ROCHA
Sailson Jose das GRACAS
Luiz Miguel Miltao GUERREIRO
Edson Isidoro GUIMARAES
Wellington Menezes de OLIVEIRA
Francisco de Assis PEREIRA
Duilio PESSOTO
Gustavo PISSARDO
Gerd WENZINGER
Marcelo Kenji YOSHINO


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CANADA

Paul Kenneth BERNARDO
Wayne Clifford BODEN
Vernon Elwood BOOHER
Marc CHAHAL
Sandy CHARLES
William Dean CHRISTENSON
John Etter CLARK
Camille CLEROUX
Robert Raymond COOK
Scott William COX
John Martin CRAWFORD
Sukhwinder Singh DHILLON
Leopold DION
Valery I. FABRIKANT
William Patrick FYFE
Kimveer GILL
David John GORTON
Matthew de GROOD
Joseph Albert GUAY
Victor Ernest HOFFMAN
Russell Maurice JOHNSON
Gilbert Paul JORDAN
Pierre LEBRUN
Cody Alan LEGEBOKOFF
Allan Joseph LEGERE
Marc LEPINE
Vince Weiguang LI
Christian Herbert MAGEE
Luka Rocco MAGNOTTA
Michael Wayne McGRAY
Herman Webster MUDGETT
Dale Merle NELSON
Earle Leonard NELSON
Clifford Robert OLSON
Robert William PICKTON
Swift RUNNER
David William SHEARING
Charles T. SINCLAIR
Michael Peter SLOBODIAN
Jeremy Allan STEINKE
Roch THERIAULT
Mark Andrew TWITCHELL
Roger WARREN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CHILE

Julio PEREZ SILVA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CHINA

Bai BAOSHAN
Hu DAOPING
Chen FUZHAO
Duan GUOCHENG
Feng GUOHUI
Gao HAIPING
Fu HEGONG
Liu HONGWEN
Huang HU
Wu HUANMING
Ma JIAJUE
Fang JIANTANG
Yang JIAQIN
Liang JIQIAN
Chan KA-CHUN
Zhao LIANRONG
Zhang LISONG
Tian MINGJIAN
Liu MINGWU
Yang MINGXIN
Zheng MINSHENG
Bai NINGYANG
Chen PEIQUAN
Zhang PILIN
Li PINGPING
Jin RUCHAO
Hua RUIZHUO
Gong RUNBO
Changyin & Changping SHEN
Chen SHUIZONG
Wang SHUJIN
Zhou WEN
Li WENXIAN
Huang WENYI
Dong WENYU
Jin XIANGWU
Qiu XINGHUA
Yang XINHAI
Wang XIWEN
Jian XUELIANG
Wu YANDONG
Yan YANMING
Kuang YINGXUE
Huang YONG
Ma YONG
Chen YONGFENG
Zhang YONGMING
Zhou YOUPING
Shi YUEJUN
Zhang YUNLIANG
Liu ZHANJIN
Cheng ZHENGPING
Xiong ZHENLIN
Yang ZHIYA
Guo ZHONGMIN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM COLOMBIA

Daniel CAMARGO BARBOSA
Campo Elias DELGADO MORALES
Luis Alfredo GARAVITO
Pedro Alonso LOPEZ
Juan de Jesus Lozano VELASQUEZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CONGO

William UNEK


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CROATIA

Vinko PALIC
Vinko PINTARIK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CZECH REPUBLIC

Martin LECIAN
Vaclav MRAZEK
Hubert PILCIK
Jozef SLOVAK
Jack UNTERWEGER
Petr ZELENKA


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ECUADOR

Daniel CAMARGO BARBOSA
Gilberto Antonio CHAMBA
Luis Alfredo GARAVITO
Pedro Alonso LOPEZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM EGYPT

Saber & Mahmoud ABU-EL-ULLA
Suleiman KHATER
Ramadan Abdel Rehim MANSOUR


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ESTONIA

Aleksandr RUBEL

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM FINLAND

Pekka-Eric AUVINEN
Jarno Sebastian ELG
Petri Erkki Tapio GERDT
Matti Juhani SAARI
Ibrahim SHKUPOLLI
Antti Olavi TASKINEN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM FRANCE

Patrice ALEGRE
Jean-Pierre ALLAIN
Marcel Henri BARBEAULT
Eric BOREL
Pierre CHANAL
Nicolas CLAUX
Manuel DELGADO VILLEGAS
Hamida DJANDOUBI
Christian DORNIER
Martin DUMOLLARD
Richard DURN
Volker ECKERT
Gunter Hermann EWEN
Serge FORTIN
Michel FOURNIRET
Guy GEORGES
Roger GIRERD
Francis HEAULME
David HOTYAT
Henry Desire LANDRU
Claude LASTENNET
Lucien LEGER
Emile LOUIS
Guy MARTEL
Mohammed MERAH
Thierry PAULIN
Michel PEIRY
Bernard PESQUET
Dr. Marcel PETIOT
Joseph PHILIPPE
Sid Ahmed REZALA
Jean-Claude ROMAND
Jean-Pierre ROUX-DURRAFOURT
Issei SAGAWA
Georges-Alexandre SARRET
Albert SOLEILLAND
Roberto SUCCO
Jean-Baptiste TROPPMANN
Jules-Alexandre UGHETTO
Joseph VACHER
Denis WAXIN
Eugen WEIDMANN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GEORGIA

Artur VAGANOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GERMANY

Fritz Heinrich ANGERSTEIN
Jurgen BARTSCH
Ernst-Dieter BECK
Eugen BERWALD
Andreas BICHEL
Werner BOOST
Karel CHARVA
Olaf DATER
Karl DENKE
Volker ECKERT
Peter GOEBBELS
Klaus GOSSMAN
Georg Karl GROSSMANN
Friedrich HAARMANN
Kuno HOFMANN
Fritz HONKA
Alexander KEITH Jr.
Gundolf KOHLER
Tim KRETSCHMER
Joachim Georg KROLL
Peter KURTEN
Stephan LETTER
Bruno LUDKE
David Edward MAUST
Alwin NEUMANN
Rudolf PLEIL
Norbert Hans POEHLKE
Heinrich POMMERENCKE
Thomas RATH
Thomas RUNG
Wolfgang SCHMIDT
SCHULTZ
Friedrich SCHUMANN
Adolf Gustav SEEFELD
Mark Alan SMITH
Helmut WEIDENBROEKER
Gerd WENZINGER
Manfred WITTMAN
Michael WOLTER

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GHANA

Charles Ebo QUANSAH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GREECE

Antonis DAGLIS
Peter KULAXIDES
Kyriakos PAPAXRONIS
Theofilos SECHIDIS
Dimitris VAKRINOS

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GUATEMALA

Jose Maria Miculax BUX
Manuel MARTINEZ CORONADO

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GUYANA

Oral HENDRICKS
James Warren JONES

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM HONG KONG

Lee Chi HANG
Lam KOR-WAN
Lam KWOK-WAI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM HUNGARY

Bela KISS
Sylvestre MATUSCHKA
Ramil SAFAROV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM INDIA

Shantaram Kanhoji JAGTAP
M JAISHANKAR
Rajendra JAKKAL
K P JAYANANDAN
Chandrakant JHA
Surender KOLI
Mohan KUMAR
R. KUPPUSAMY
Mahanand NAIK
Motta NAVAS
Moninder Singh PANDHER
Raman RAGHAV
Dilip RATHIA
Mahavir RAZAK
Umesh REDDY
Sadashiv SAHU
Munawar Harun SHAH
Auto SHANKAR
Kampatimar SHANKARIYA
Devendra SHARMA
Darbara SINGH
Major SINGH
Charles SOBHRAJ
Dilip Dhyanoba SUTAR
Ravindra Kumar VERMA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM INDONESIA

BAEKUNI
Verry Idham HENYANSYAH
Ahmad SURADJI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM IRAN

Mohammed BIJEH
Ali Asghar BORUJERDI
Saeed HANAEI
Ali Reza Khoshruy Kuran KORDIYEH
Yaghoub Ali MIRSHEKARI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM IRAQ

Ali Asghar BORUJERDI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM IRELAND

Henry McCABE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ISRAEL

Nicolai BONNER
Mohammed HALABI
Ami POPPER
Asher WEISGAN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ITALY

Marco BERGAMO
Donato BILANCIA
Manuel DELGADO VILLEGAS
Bartolomeo GAGLIANO
Maurizio GIUGLIANO
Antonio MANTOVANI
Andrea MATTEUCCI
Maurizio MINGHELLA
Nicola SAPONE
Cesare SERVIATTI
Roberto SUCCO
Vincenzo VERZENI
Andrea VOLPE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM JAMAICA

Lewis HUTCHINSON

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM JAPAN

Sataro FUKIAGE
Hiroaki HIDAKA
Yasutoshi KAMATA
Kiyotaka KATSUTA
Yoshio KODAIRA
Genzo KURITA
Hiroshi MAEUE
Futoshi MATSUNAGA
Tsutomu MIYAZAKI
Kiyoshi OKUBO
Robert Dale SEGEE
Furuya SOKICHI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM JORDAN

Ahmad Musa DAKAMSEH
Saeed QASHASH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM KAZAKHSTAN

Vladislav CHELAKH
Nikolai DZHUMAGALIEV
Oleg MURAYENKO
Abduseit ORMANOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM KENYA

Francis NG'ANG'A

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM KOSOVO

Frank J. RONGHI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM KUWAIT

Hasan AKBAR

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM LATVIA

Yuri CHUBAROV
Alexander KORYAKOV
Kaspars PETROVS

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM LESOTHO

Makhele SCOTT

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM LITHUANIA

Leonardas ZAVISTONOVICIUS

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MACEDONIA

Vlado TANESKI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MALAWI

Nasser KARA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MALAYSIA

Mat Taram bin SA'AL
Charles SOBHRAJ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MALTA

Silvio MANGION

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MEXICO

Jose Luis CALVA ZEPEDA
Ricardo Silvio CAPUTO
Adolfo de Jesus CONSTANZO
Gabriel Arturo GARZA HOTH
Cesar Armando LIBRADO LEGORRETA


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MOROCCO

Abdelali AMER
Abdelaali HADI
Hadj Mohammed MESFEWI
Hicham RAOUI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NAMIBIA

Sylvester & Gavin BEUKES

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NEPAL

Charles SOBHRAJ
Basudev THAPA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NETHERLANDS

Jacobus Dirk (Koos) HERTOGS
Ondrej RIGO
John SWEENEY
Willem VAN EIJK
Hans VAN ZON

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NEW ZEALAND

Wiremu Kingi MAKETU
Raymond Wahia RATIMA
Arthur ROTTMAN
James STACK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NIGERIA

Kazeem ADEYEMO

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NORWAY

Anders Behring BREIVIK
Arnfinn NESSET
Thomas QUICK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM PAKISTAN

Arif and Farman ALI
Javed IQBAL
Amir QAYYUM
Abdul RAZZAQ
Muhammad YOUSAF

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM PALESTINE

Baruch Kappel GOLDSTEIN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM PERU

Pedro Alonso LOPEZ
Pedro Pablo NAKADA LUDENA


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM POLAND

Joachim KNYCHALA
Julian KOLTUN
Karol KOT
Zdzislaw MARCHWICKI
Wladyslaw MAZURKIEWICZ
Stanislaw MODZELEWSKI
Andrzej NOWOCIEN


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM PORTUGAL

Antonio Luis COSTA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ROMANIA

Ion RIMARU
TCAIUC
Romulus VERES

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM RUSSIA

Artem ANOUFRIEV
Valery ASRATYAN
Anatoly BIRYUKOV
Ahmed BRAGIMOV
Vladimir BRATISLAV
Roman BURTSEV
Alexander BYCHKOV
Andrei Romanovich CHIKATILO
Sergei Aleksandrovich GOLOVKIN
Alexander GREB
Vasili KOMAROFF
Alexander KOMIN
Valery KOPYLOV
Vasiliy KULIK
Ilshyat KUZIKOV
Alexander KUZMINYKH
Sergey MARTYNOV
Andrei MASLICH
Vladimir MIRGOROD
Vladimir MUKHANKIN
Oleg NAUMOV
Dr. Maxim Vladimirovich PETROV
Alexander Yuryevich PICHUSHKIN
Mikhail Viktorovich POPKOV
Vladmir ROMANOV
Sergei RYAKHOVSKY
Artur RYNO
Anatoly Yelemianovich SLIVKO
Alexander SPESIVTSEV
Nicholas TRAPISHKIN
Dmitry VORONENKO
Vadim YERSHOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SAUDI ARABIA

Faisal bin MUSAID

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SERBIA

Ljubisa BOGDANOVIC
Silvo PLUT
Nikola RADOSAVLJEVIC


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SLOVAKIA

Matej CURKO
Ondrej RIGO
Jozef SLOVAK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SLOVENIA

Silvo PLUT
Metod TROBEC

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SOUTH AFRICA

Pierre Corneille Faculys BASSON
Dr. Wouter BASSON
Elias CHAUKE
Johannes Christiaan DE JAGER
Sipho DUBE
Sibusiso DUMA
Casper KRUGER
Gamal Salie LINEVELDT
Maoupa Cedrid MAAKE
Bulelani MABHAYI
Fanuel MAKAMU
Jimmy MAKETTA
Johannes MASHIANE
Lazarus Tshidiso MAZINGANE
Samuel Bongani MFEKA
Mbulaheni David MMBENGWA
Madumetsa Jack MOGALE
Zola Jackson MQOMBOYI
Elifasi MSOMI
Mtimane MSUNDWANA
Themba MTHOMBENI
Mukosi Freddy MULAUDZI
Nicholas Lungisa NCAMA
Velaphi NDLANGAMANDLA
David RANDITSHENI
Norman Afzal SIMONS
Moses SITHOLE
Barend Hendrik STRYDOM
Themba Anton SUKUDE
Thozamile TAKI
Sipho Agmatir THWALA
Gert VAN ROOYEN
Louis VAN SCHOOR
Stewart WILKEN
Elias XITAVHUDZI
Christopher M. ZIKODE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SOUTH KOREA

KANG Ho-sun
Jeong NAM-KYU
Yoo YOUNG-CHUL

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SPAIN

Manuel BLANCO ROMASANTA
Gilberto Antonio CHAMBA
Manuel DELGADO VILLEGAS
Volker ECKERT
Raymond Martinez FERNANDEZ
Francisco GARCIA ESCALERO
Jose Antonio RODRIGUEZ VEGA
Joan VILA DILME

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SUDAN

Abbas Baqir ABBAS

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SWAZILAND

David Thabo SIMELANE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SWEDEN

John Ingvar LOVGREN
Jon Andreas NODTVEIDT
Thomas QUICK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SWITZERLAND

Roger ANDERMATT
Michel PEIRY
Hermann SCHWARZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SYRIA

Ali MARJEK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM TAIWAN

Cheng CHIEH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM THAILAND

Somkhid PHUMPHUANG
John Martin SCRIPPS
Charles SOBHRAJ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM TURKEY

Adnan COLAK
Ogdur DENGIZ
Ali KAYA
Yavuz YAPICIOGLU

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UGANDA

Joseph KIBWETEERE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UKRAINE

Vladimir KONDRATENKO
Anatoly ONOPRIENKO
Viktor SAYENKO
Igor SUPRUNYUCK
Serhiy TKACH
Vladislav VOLKOVICH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

Junaid Nawaz Lal NAWAZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UNITED KINGDOM

Dr. John Bodkin ADAMS
Stephen AKINMURELE
Robert BLACK
Ian BRADY
William BURKE
George CHAPMAN
John CHILDS
John Reginald CHRISTIE
Thomas Neill CREAM
Kenneth ERSKINE
Roy FONTAINE
Daniel GONZALEZ
Steven John GRIEVESON
Stephen Shaun GRIFFITHS
Allan GRIMSON
John George HAIGH
Archibald Thompson HALL
Anthony John HARDY
Trevor Joseph HARDY
William HARE
Neville George Clevely HEATH
Mark HOBSON
Colin IRELAND
Ian KAY
Kieron KELLY
Bruce George Peter LEE
Wendell Willis LIGHTBOURNE
Robin Stanislaw LIGUS
Michael LUPO
Patrick David MacKAY
Peter Thomas Anthony MANUEL
Robert John MAUDSLEY
Peter MOORE
Raymond Leslie MORRIS
David MULCAHY
Donald NEILSON
Dennis Andrew NILSEN
Colin Campbell NORRIS
Dr. William PALMER
Michael Robert RYAN
Dr. Harold Frederick SHIPMAN
Angus Robertson SINCLAIR
George Joseph SMITH
John Thomas STRAFFEN
Peter William SUTCLIFFE
Peter Britton TOBIN
Frederick Walter Stephen WEST
Steven Gerald James WRIGHT
Graham Frederick YOUNG


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UZBEKISTAN

Abduseit ORMANOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM VENEZUELA

Dorancel VARGAS GOMEZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM VIETNAM

Duong VAN MOM


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ZIMBABWE

Dr. Richard Gladwell McGOWN

SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

MASS MURDERERS AND SPREE KILLERS FROM AROUND THE WORLD

Ricky ABEYTA
Saber & Mahmoud Farahat ABU EL-ULLA
Gameel AL-BATOUTI
Aaron ALEXIS
Jean-Pierre ALLAIN
Juan Manuel ALVAREZ
Nordine AMRANI
Stephen Lawrence ANDERSON
Fritz Heinrich ANGERSTEIN
Abbas Baqir ABBAS
Mauro ANTONELLO
Siavosh Rahmani AQDAM
Shoko ASAHARA
Larry Gene ASHBROOK
Pekka-Eric AUVINEN
Jorjik AVANESIAN
Ronald Baquiran BAE
Robert BALES
Asanda BANINZI
George Emil BANKS
Mark Orrin BARTON
Clarence V. BERTUCCI
Sylvester & Gavin BEUKES
Ljubisa BOGDANOVIC
William Ray BONNER
Eric BOREL
Ahmed BRAGIMOV
Anders Behring BREIVIK
Carl Robert BROWN
Martin John BRYANT
Woo BUM-KON
David Augustus BURKE
Julian CARLTON
Dragan CEDIC
Marc CHAHAL
Robert CHARLES
Vladislav CHELAKH
Seung-Hui CHO
Yuri CHUBAROV
John Etter CLARK
Abel CLEMMONS
Darnell COLLINS
Melvin COLLINS
Marciano CONTATOE
Kim DAE-HAN
Ahmad Musa DAKAMSEH
Mesac DAMAS
Rodrick Shonte DANTZLER
Roger Kingsley DEAN
Campo Elias DELGADO MORALES
DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah
Christian DORNIER
Jessie DOTSON
Thomas G. DOTY
Richard DURN

MORE COMING SOON


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

MOBSTERS, HITMEN AND MORE

ORGANIZED CRIME
ABE RELES
AL CAPONE
ALBERT TANNENBAUM
ALEXANDER SOLONIK
ANTHONY SENTER
ANTHONY SPILOTRO
ANGELO LA BARBERA
BERNARDO PROVENZANO
CALOGERO VIZZINI
CHARLES HARRELSON
CHARLES NICOLETTI
CHRIS ROSENBERG
CORNELIUS HUGHES
GAETANO BADALAMENTI
GIUSEPPE GENCO RUSSO
GLENNON ENGLEMAN
HARRY MAIONE
FRANK ABBANDANDO
FRANK ABBANDANDO JR
FRANK NITTI
FRANK SHEERAN
FELIX ALDERISIO
HARRY STRAUSS
JACK MCGURN
JAMES BURKE
JOHN GOTTI
JOSEPH TESTA
LEOLUCA BAGARELLA
LOUIS CAPONE
LUCKY LUCIANO
MATTEO MESSINA DENARO
MICHELE GRECO
MICHELE NAVARRA
RICHARD KUKLINSKI
ROY DEMEO
SALVATORE GRECO
SALVATORE LO PICCOLO
SALVATORE INZERILLO
SALVATORE RIINA
SAMMY GRAVANO
STEFANO BONTADE
STEFANO MAGADDINO
SEYMOUR MAGOON
THOMAS DESIMONE
TOMMASO BUSCETTA
VERNON C. MILLER
VITO CASCIO FERRO


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

KILLERS FROM MOVIES, BOOKS, GAMES, COMICS AND MORE

MOVIES AND MURDER
ANGELA
ANGELA BAKER
ALEX DELARGE
ANNIE WILKES
BABY "ANGEL" FIREFLY
BABY JANE HUDSON
BARABAS THE JEW
BEN WILLIS (THE FISHERMAN)
BILLY CHAPMAN
BROTHER PAPA
BUFFALO BILL
CAPTAIN SPAULDING
CANDYMAN
THE CENOBITES
CHOP TOP (ROBERT SAWYER)
CHUCKY (CHARLES LEE RAY)
CLETUS KASADY
CORINTHIAN
DEXTER MORGAN
DOCTOR EVAN RENDELL
DOCTOR MABUSE
DOCTOR SATAN
DR. ALAN FEINSTONE
DR. PHILIP CHANNARD
DRAYTON SAWYER
EDGLER VESS
EDWARD LIONHEART
EDWARD SAWYER
FARMER VINCENT SMITH
FRANCIS DOLARHYDE
FRANK BOOTH
FREDDY KRUEGER
GEORGE HARVEY
GEORGES QUERELLE
GRANDPA HUGO
DR HANNIBAL LECTER
GHOSTFACE KILLER
HERBERT WEST
HORACE PINKER
JASON VOORHEES
JIGSAW KILLER
JOHN DOE
JOHN RYDER
JUPITERS CLAN
LAWRENCE WARGRAVE
LEATHERFACE
LORD VOLDEMORT
LUDA MAY HEWITT
MAX CADY
MICHAEL MYERS
MICKEY & MALLORY KNOX
NORMAN BATES
OH DAE-SU
OLD MONTY
OTIS DRIFTWOOD
PATRICK BATEMAN
PINHEAD
RANDALL FLAGG
REVEREND HARRY POWELL
RHODA PENMARK
SERGE A. STORMS
SHERIFF HOYT
SWEENEY TODD
TED ALLISON
THE TALL MAN
TOM RIPLEY
WHITEFACE


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

THE MANY TYPES OF MURDER

ASSASSINATION
CHILD MURDER
CONSENSUAL HOMICIDE
CONTRACT KILLING
DEMOCIDE
FELONY MURDER
FETICIDE
FILICIDE
FRATRICIDE
GENDERCIDE
GENOCIDE
HOMICIDE
HONOR KILLING
HUMAN SACRIFICE
INFANTICIDE
JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDE
LUST MURDER
LYNCHING
MANSLAUGHTER
MARITICIDE
MASS MURDER
MATRICIDE
MURDER-SUICIDE
NEGLIGENT HOMICIDE
PARRICIDE
PATRICIDE
PROLICIDE
PROXY MURDER
REGICIDE
RITUAL MURDER
SERIAL KILLER
SORORICIDE
SPREE KILLER
SUICIDE
TYRANNICIDE
UXORICIDE
VEHICULAR HOMICIDE


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

UNNATURAL LOVE AND IT'S CONNECTIONS TO SERIAL KILLING

OVERVIEW OF PARAPHILIA
OVERVIEW OF FETISHISM
ABASIOPHILIA
ACOUSTICOPHILIA
ACROTOMOPHILIA
ALGOLAGNIA
APOTEMNOPHILIA
AMAUROPHILIA
ANACLITISM
ANDROMIMETOPHILIA
AQUAPHILIA
ARETIFISM
ASPHYXIOPHILIA
AUTOGYNEPHILIA
BIASTOPHILIA
COPROPHILIA
CHRONOPHILIA
CRUSH FETISH
DACRYPHILIA
EMETOPHILIA
EPHEBOPHILIA
EXHIBITIONISM
FOOD PLAY
FORNIPHILIA
FROTTEURISM
GALACTOPHILIA
GYNOPHAGIA
HEMATOLAGNIA
HOMEOVESTISM
HYBRISTOPHILIA
INCEST
INFANTILISM
KATOPTRONOPHILIA
KLEPTOMANIA
KLISMAPHILIA
LUST MURDER
MACROPHILIA
MAIESIOPHILIA
PODOPHILIA
SADISM & MASOCHISM
MICROPHILIA
MYSOPHILIA
NARRATOPHILIA
NASOPHILIA
NECROPHILIA
NEPIOPHILIA
PYROPHILIA
RETIFISM
SALIROMANIA
SCHEDIAPHILIA
SITOPHILIA
SOMNOPHILIA
STATUEPHILIA
TERATOPHILIA
TRANSVESTISM
TROILISM
UROLAGNIA
VINCILAGNIA
VORAREPHILIA
VOYEURISM
ZOOPHILIA


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

FROM THE MOUTH OF KILLERS

ARTHUR SHAWCROSS INTERVIEW
BTK KILLER INTERVIEW
CHARLES MANSON INTERVIEW
ELMER HENLEY INTERVIEW
JAMES MUNRO INTERVIEW
JEFFREY DAHMER INTERVIEW
JOHN ROBINSON INTERVIEW
KEITH JESPERSON INTERVIEW
RICHARD RAMIREZ INTERVIEW
TED BUNDY INTERVIEW
WAYNE LO INTERVIEW
SWAP LINKS WITH US


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

AN EVER GROWING COLLECTION OF HORROR MOVIE REVIEWS

ABANDONED, THE
AB-NORMAL BEAUTY
ABOMINABLE
ALBERT FISH
ALONE IN THE DARK
ALONE WITH HER
ALTERED
AMATEUR PORN STAR KILLER
AMAZON JAIL
AN AMERICAN HAUNTING
AND NOW THE SCREAMING STARTS
ANDRE THE BUTCHER
APRIL FOOL'S DAY
ARANG
ASYLUM
AUDREY ROSE
AUNT ROSE
AUTOMATONS
AUTOPSY
AWAKEN THE DEAD
BABY BLOOD
BAD REPUTATION
BAD TASTE
BAISE MOI
BANGKOK HAUNTED
BARE BEHIND BARS
BARRICADE
BASKET CASE
BATTLE IN HEAVEN
BENEATH STILL WATERS
BEYOND THE WALL OF SLEEP
BIG BAD WOLF
BLACK DAHLIA
BTK KILLER
BUTCHER OF PLAINFIELD
CABIN FEVER
CACHE
CAMP BLOOD
CAMP BLOOD 2
CAMP SLAUGHTER
CANDY STRIPERS
CANNIBAL (2005)
CANNIBAL (2006)
CANNIBAL CAMPOUT
CANNIBAL HOLOCAUST
CARD PLAYER, THE
CAVED IN
CAVE, THE
CAVERN, THE
CELLO
CEMETERY GATES
CEMETERY MAN
CENTIPEDE
CERBERUS
CHAINSAW SALLY
CHAOS
CHEERLEADER MASSACRE
CHICAGO MASSACRE
CHILDREN OF THE CORN
CHOKE, THE
CHURCH, THE
CINDERELLA
CITY OF ROTT
CITY OF THE LIVING DEAD
COME GET SOME
CONTAINMENT
CONTAMINATION
CONVENT, THE
COOKERS
CORPSES
COVENANT, THE
CREEP
CREEPSHOW
CREEPSHOW 2
CREEPSHOW 3
CULT
CUP OF MY BLOOD
CURIOUS DR. HUMP, THE
CURSE OF LIZZIE BORDEN
CURSE OF THE DEVIL
CUT
CUT AND RUN
DANIKA
DARK CORNERS
DARK FIELDS
DARK HOURS, THE
DAUGHTERS OF DARKNESS
DAWN
DEAD & BREAKFAST
DEAD & DEADER
DEAD CALLING, A
DEAD LEAVES
DEAD LIFE
DEAD LINE
DEAD MARY
DEAD MEN WALKING
DEAD & ROTTING
DEAD SHIT
DEAD SILENCE
DEATH BED
DEATH BY ENGAGEMENT
DEATH CLIQUE
DEATH KNOWS YOUR NAME
DEATH TUNNEL
DEATH VALLEY
DEATH WALKS AT MIDNIGHT
DEATH WALKS ON HIGH HEALS
DECOYS: THE SECOND SEDUCTION
DEFENCELESS: A BLOOD SYMPHONY
THE DELIBERATE STRANGER
DEMON HUNTER
DEMONIC
DEMONS
DEMONS 2
DESCENT, THE
DESPERATE SOULS
DESPERATION, STEPHEN KING'S
DEVIL'S DEN
DEVIL'S RAIN, THE
DEVIL'S REJECTS, THE
DEVIL TIMES FIVE
DEXTER 6 "RETURN TO SENDER"
DEXTER 7 "CIRCLE OF FRIENDS"
DEXTER 8 "SHRINK WRAP"
DEXTER 9 "FATHER KNOWS BEST"
DEXTER 10 "SEEING RED"
DEXTER 11 "TRUTH BE TOLD"
DEXTER 12 "BORN FREE"
DIARY OF A CANNIBAL
DIE YOU ZOMBIE BASTARDS!
DISTURBANCE
DJANGO
DOG SOLDIERS
DON'T ANSWER THE PHONE
DON'T DELIVER US FROM EVIL
DON'T GO IN THE HOUSE
DON'T TORTURE A DUCKLING
DOOM
DOOMED
DOPPELGANGER
DORM
DORM OF THE DEAD
DO YOU LIKE HITCHCOCK?
DRACULA
DRACULA, HOUSE OF
DRACULA, SPANISH
DRACULA'S CURSE
DRACULA'S DAUGHTER
DREAM REAPER
DROP, THE
DUMBLAND
DUST DEVIL
EATING RAZORS
EDMOND
EMANUELLE AROUND THE WORLD
EMANUELLE IN AMERICA
EMANUELLE IN BANGKOK
ENTRAILS OF A BEAUTIFUL WOMAN
ENTRAILS OF A VIRGIN
EVIL (TO KAKO)
EVIL ALIENS
EVIL BEHIND YOU
EVIL BONG
EVIL BREED
EVIL DEAD TRAP 2
EVIL ED
EVILENKO
EVILSPEAK
EYE, THE
EYES OF CRYSTAL
FACES OF GORE
FAMILY PORTRAIT
FANTOM KILER
FAUSTO 5.0
FEAR OF CLOWNS
FEAST
FEED
FEMALE CONVICT SCORPION
FIFTH CORD, THE
FINAL DESTINATION 3
FIRST BORN
5 DEAD ON THE CRIMSON CANVAS
5IVE GIRLS
FLESH EATERS, THE
FLOWER AND SNAKE
FLOWER AND SNAKE 2
FOG, THE (1980)
FOG, THE (2005)
FORBIDDEN PHOTOS OF A LADY ABOVE SUSPICION
FORCED ENTRY
FOREST OF DEATH
FRAILTY
FRANKENHOOKER
FRANKENSTEIN
FRANKENSTEIN CONQUERS THE WORLD
FREAKMAKER, THE
FREAK OUT
FREAKSHOW
FRENCH SEX MURDERS
FRIDAY THE 13TH
FRIDAY THE 13TH II
FRIDAY THE 13TH III
FRIDAY THE 13TH VI
FRIDAY THE 13TH VII
FRIDAY THE 13TH VIII
FRIGHTMARE
FRIGHT NIGHT
FROM DUSK TILL DAWN
FROM DUSK TILL DAWN 2
FROM DUSK TILL DAWN 3
FROSTBITE
FUNHOUSE, THE
FUNNY GAMES
FUTURE-KILL
GAME BOX 1.0
GANGS OF THE DEAD
GARDEN, THE
GATHERING, THE
GEMINI
GHOST GAME
GHOST LAKE
GHOST OF MAE NAK
GHOST, THE (RYEONG)
GHOUL SCHOOL
GINGER SNAPS
GIRL BOSS GUERILLA
GIRL SLAVES OF MORGANA LE FAY
GOING TO PIECES
GOLDEN AGE
GONE THE WAY OF FLESH
GORE GORE GIRLS, THE
GRAVEDANCERS, THE (2007)
GRAVEYARD ALIVE
GRAVEYARD, THE
GREEN RIVER KILLER
GRINDHOUSE - DEATH PROOF
GRINDHOUSE - PLANET TERROR
GRUB GIRL
GRUDGE, THE
GRUDGE 2, THE
H6: DIARY OF A SERIAL KILLER
HALFWAY HOUSE, THE
HALLOWED
HALLOWEEN NIGHT
HAMILTONS, THE
HANNIBAL RISING
HARD CANDY
HARSH TIMES
HAUNTED FOREST
HAUNTED HIGHWAY
HAUNTED PRISON
HAVOC
THE HAZING
HEADER
HEADHUNTER
HEAD OF THE FAMILY
HEADSPACE
HEAD TRAUMA
HEARTSTOPPER
HELLBENT
HELLFIRE CLUB
HELLRAISER
HELLBOUND: HELLRAISER 2
HELLRAISER 3: HELL ON EARTH
HELLRAISER - DEADER
HELTER SKELTER
HENRY
HIGH TENSION
HILLS HAVE EYES, THE (2006)
HILLS HAVE EYES 2, THE (1985)
HILLS HAVE EYES 2, THE (2007)
HILLSIDE CANNIBALS
HITCHER, THE (1986)
HITCHHIKER, THE
HORROR BUSINESS
HORRORS OF MALFORMED MEN
HORRORS OF WAR
HOSTEL
HOSTEL 2
HOST, THE
HOT FUZZ
HOT WAX: ZOMBIES ON WHEELS
HOUSE OF 9
HOUSE OF BLOOD
HUMAN NO MORE
HUNDRA
HUNT, THE
IDLE HANDS
I DRINK YOUR BLOOD
I'LL BURY YOU TOMORROW
ILSA - SHE WOLF OF THE SS
ILSA - HAREM KEEPER OF THE OIL SHEIKS
ILSA - THE WICKED WARDEN
IN A DARK PLACE
INCUBUS
INFECTION
INNOCENTS, THE
INSECTICIDAL
INSIDE IRVIN
IN THE MOUTH OF MADNESS
INVASION OF THE POD PEOPLE
IRIS EFFECT, THE
IRREVERSIBLE
ISOLATION
I SPIT ON YOUR GRAVE
I STAND ALONE
IT WAITS
IVORY, THE
JACK FROST
JACK FROST 2
JESUS CHRIST VAMPIRE HUNTER
JOSHUA
JUNGLE HOLOCAUST
KARLA
KATIEBIRD: CERTIFIABLE CRAZY PERSON
KAW
KEEPER, THE
KEKKO KAMEN NEW
KIDNAPPED (RABID DOGS)
KILL, BABY...KILL
KILLER KLOWNS FROM OUTER SPACE
KILLER MUST KILL AGAIN, THE
KITTEN KRIME DOUBLE FEATURE
KNIGHT OF THE PEEPER
KOLOBOS
KOVAK BOX, THE
KRAKEN - TENTACLES OF THE DEEP
KWAIDAN
LADY IN THE WATER
LADY SNOWBLOOD: LOVE SON OF VENGEANCE
LADY VENGEANCE
LAST BROADCAST, THE
LAST ROUND, THE
LAST SUPPER, THE
LAURE
LEGEND OF BLOODY JACK, THE
LEGEND OF LUCY KEYES, THE
LEGEND OF THE 7 GOLDEN VAMPIRES
LET ME DIE A WOMAN
LITTLE ERIN MERRYWEATHER
LIVE FEED
LIVE FREAKY DIE FREAKY
LIVING COFFIN, THE
LIVING DOLL
LIVING HELL
LONELY ONES, THE
LONE WOLF AND CUB
LOST, THE
LUCKY
LUTHER THE GEEK
MACUMBA SEXUAL
MAD COWGIRL
MAGDALENA'S BRAIN
MAGIC
MAID, THE
MAID OF HONOR
MAIL ORDER BRIDE
MALPERTUIS
MAN CALLED MAGNUM, A
MANIACTS
MANSION OF THE LIVING DEAD
MAN WITH THE SCREAMING BRAIN
MARAUDERS
MARCUS
MAREBITO
MARK OF THE DEVIL
MARSH, THE
MATAVIEJITAS, LA
MAY
MEATBALL MACHINE
MEN BEHIND THE SUN
MESSENGERS, THE
MEXICAN WEREWOLF IN TEXAS, A
MIKADROID: ROBOKILL BENEATH DISCO CLUB LAYLA
MINOTAUR
MOH - CHOCOLATE
MOH - CIGARETTE BURNS
MOH - DEER WOMAN
MOH - DREAMS IN THE WITCH HOUSE
MOH - FAIR HAIRED CHILD
MOH - HAECKEL'S TALE
MOH - HOMECOMING
MOH - IMPRINT
MOH - INCIDENT ON AND OFF A MOUNTAIN ROAD
MOH - JENIFER
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Josephine Victoria GRAY


A.K.A.: "The Black Widow"

Classification: Murderer
Characteristics: To collect insurance money
Number of victims: 2 - 3
Date of murders: March 3, 1974 / November 9, 1990 / June 21, 1996
Date of arrest: December 5, 2001
Date of birth: 1946
Victims profile: Norman Stribbling (husband) / William Robert Gray (husband) / Clarence Goode (boyfriend)
Method of murder: Shooting
Location: Montgomery/Baltimore Counties, Maryland, USA
Status: Sentenced to 40 years in prison on December 2, 2002. Re-sentenced to 40 years in prison on August 7, 2006


Josephine Gray, known as “The Black Widow,” re-sentenced to 40 years in insurance fraud caseCaused the Deaths of A Husband and Lover to Collect Life Insurance Proceeds

August 7, 2006

GREENBELT, Maryland - Josephine V. Gray, age 60, of Wheaton, Maryland was re-sentenced today to 40 years in prison arising from her 2002 convictions for mail and wire fraud stemming from the homicides of two men, announced United States Attorney for the District of Maryland Rod J. Rosenstein. Gray was convicted on August 16, 2002 of intentionally causing the death of William Robert Gray and Clarence Goode, making it illegal for her to profit from those crimes by filing claims for their life insurance benefits.

Gray appealed her original 40 year sentence based on the Supreme Court’s 2005 decision in United States v. Booker finding that the mandatory U.S. Sentencing Guidelines were unconstitutional. At her original sentencing hearing U.S. District Court Judge Deborah K. Chasanow held that since Gray committed premeditated murder, she should be sentenced using the guidelines for first degree murder rather than fraud. Under the advisory Sentencing Guidelines currently in place, Judge Chasanow reinforced her original ruling and resentenced Gray to 40 years.

According to trial testimony, on March 3, 1974 Norman Stribbling, Gray’s husband at that time, was found murdered. He died of a single gunshot wound to the right side of his head. Gray was suspected in that murder and two witnesses testified that Gray had solicited them, on separate occasions, to murder Norman Stribbling. Nevertheless, Gray was not convicted of his murder and received $16,000 from Stribbling’s life insurance.

According to trial testimony, Gray married William Robert Gray in November, 1975 with whom she had been having an affair for several years. Josephine and William Gray separated in August of 1990. At the time, Josephine Gray was having an affair with Clarence Goode and a co-worker. Witnesses at trial testified that William Gray stated on numerous occasions that his estranged wife was trying to kill him and that she had assaulted him. From August through October 1990, William Gray changed several of his life insurance policies to remove Josephine Gray as beneficiary. On November 9, 1990, Mr. Gray was discovered shot to death in his apartment. Josephine Gray’s co-worker boyfriend testified at trial that Gray admitted to being involved in the murder. Despite being a suspect in this murder, Josephine Gray collected over $54,000 from Mr. Gray’s life insurance policies.

From 1990 to 1996 Clarence Good and Josephine Gray lived together. In March, 1996 Goode applied for a $100,000 life insurance policy, naming Josephine Gray as the sole beneficiary. On June 21, 1996 Goode’s body was discovered in the trunk of his car in Baltimore. He had been shot in the head. A search warrant executed at Josephine Gray’s home several weeks after the murder found a large stain on the concrete floor of the garage which tested positive for blood. Next to the stain was a commercial vacuum cleaner and small amounts of possible blood was recovered from inside. State charges were never brought against Gray and the insurance company paid Gray $90,000. They paid Mr. Goode’s minor son the remaining $10,000.

United States Attorney Rod J. Rosenstein thanked the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Montgomery County Police Department and Baltimore City Police Department for their investigative work performed in this case. Mr. Rosenstein also praised Assistant United States Attorneys Sandra Wilkinson and James Trusty who prosecuted the case.

Justice.gov


Woman guilty of insurance fraudShe collected $165,000 after deaths of 3 men

By Gail Gibson - BaltimoreSun.com

August 17, 2002

After escaping prosecution for more than two decades by using threats of voodoo against potential witnesses, a woman who authorities said had a hand in the deaths of three lovers was convicted yesterday of fraudulently collecting the victims' life insurance benefits.

Josephine Virginia Gray, 55, of Upper Marlboro was found guilty on eight counts of mail and wire fraud by a federal jury in U.S. District Court in Greenbelt. Prosecutors said she collected $165,000 in insurance money after two husbands were shot to death in Montgomery County and a young boyfriend was found dead in Baltimore.

Gray was charged in the 1974 and 1990 Montgomery County killings, but authorities said the charges in each case were dropped when witnesses, frightened by rumors that Gray practiced voodoo, refused to testify against her.

The jury hearing the fraud case against Gray did not have to decide whether the grandmother and former school janitor committed murder. To find her guilty, jurors had to decide that Gray had a role in the men's deaths and was banned under the so-called slayer's rule from collecting insurance benefits.

Attorneys in the case declined to comment, noting a gag order that extends until Gray is sentenced Dec. 3. She faces up to 40 years in prison.

State prosecutors in Montgomery County also have filed new murder charges against Gray. That case is pending.

At the fraud trial, defense attorneys called Gray a three-time surviving victim who was wrongly targeted by police with tunnel vision who wrongly relied on "gossip, rumor and innuendo."

"For more than a quarter-century, she has been under scrutiny, when all this time she has been a victim who deserves our sympathy and our compassion, not this prosecution," Daniel W. Stiller, an assistant federal public defender, said in court.

Prosecutors offered a different portrayal of Gray, calling her a master manipulator who used new lovers to help her kill men she no longer wanted.

Assistant U.S. Attorney James Trusty called Gray's story a book of many chapters and said some of them "really are written in the blood of three men who loved Josephine Gray."


Montgomery police charge woman with murder in deaths of two husbandsVoodoo fears undermined earlier cases against her

By Dennis O'Brien - BaltimoreSun.com

January 5, 2002Josephine Gray, feared for her use of voodoo and charged by federal authorities with collecting insurance proceeds after "causing" the deaths of two husbands and a boyfriend, was charged by Montgomery County police yesterday with murder in the deaths of both husbands.

Gray, 55, who is being held by federal authorities, was charged with two counts of first-degree murder in an arrest warrant filed by police late yesterday in Montgomery County District Court in Rockville.

Gray was charged with killing her first husband, Norman Stribbling, in 1974 and her second husband, William Robert Gray, in 1990.

She was charged with both killings shortly after they occurred, but the charges were dismissed in both cases after witnesses -- fearful of the voodoo in Gray's past -- recanted and disappeared before her trial, Montgomery County State's Attorney Douglas F. Gansler said.

Gansler said yesterday that witnesses have offered new information about the killings because they are less fearful of retaliation by Gray now that she is in federal custody.

"We're seeing a lot more cooperation in terms of witnesses' willingness to go forward," Gansler said.

Gray's attorney, Michael CitaraManis, has declined to comment on the case.

Gray also is implicated in federal court papers in the killing of Clarence Goode, a former boyfriend whose body was found June 21, 1996, stuffed in the trunk of his car in West Baltimore.

Gray is described in court papers as a mother of six and a grandmother of 11 who retired after 27 years as a custodian in the Montgomery County schools. Before her arrest, she provided day-care services in the Upper Marlboro home where she has lived for 11 years.

Gansler said witnesses have lived in fear of Gray and that some are willing to come forward only because she has been ordered held without bail on the federal charges.

When police searched Gray's home in 1990, they found "dolls with pins in them" and other voodoo paraphernalia, Gansler said. Witnesses also have told police they feared Gray because of her voodoo, according to Gansler and court papers.

Gray is charged by federal authorities with mail and wire fraud for collecting life insurance policies for all three victims after she was "involved in" their deaths, according to federal court papers.

An eight-count federal indictment handed up in November says Gray "intentionally caused the Death" of all three victims for a total of $165,000 in life insurance money.

Gansler said the witnesses who have come forward include Andre Savoy, who was Gray's boyfriend when she was arrested on federal charges in November.

According to court papers, Savoy told police in 1990 that Gray had admitted to him that she planned to kill her estranged husband, William Gray.

Savoy also told police that a few weeks before William Gray was shot to death, Josephine Gray pulled a .45-caliber handgun from beneath her bed and said she would shoot anyone who came near her house at night, including William Gray.

After her husband was killed with a .45-caliber handgun, Gray denied to police that she ever owned such a weapon, according to court papers.


A feared woman, 3 killings and allegations of voodooShe collected benefits, is charged with fraud

By Dennis O'Brien - BaltimoreSun.com

December 8, 2001GREENBELT - Before they were killed, Norman Stribbling, William Robert Gray and Clarence Goode each told friends that a dangerous woman was after them.

All three were shot to death, Stribbling in 1974, Gray in 1990 and Goode in 1996.

The woman they feared had been married to Stribbing and Gray and had been Goode's girlfriend.

Police and prosecutors say Josephine Gray escaped justice for 27 years by using violence and voodoo to intimidate people, according to papers released by court officials yesterday.

Gray, 55, of Upper Marlboro is charged in U.S. District Court in Greenbelt with mail and wire fraud for collecting $165,000 in life insurance benefits on policies for the men after she was "involved in" their deaths.

Her trial is scheduled to begin July 29.

According to federal court papers, Gray attacked all three victims in the weeks and months before they were killed.

Stribbling told friends weeks before he was killed in 1974 that his wife had tried to shoot him in the head one morning while they were in bed together. He survived because the gun misfired, Assistant U.S. Attorney James Trusty said.

Goode told police about two months before he was killed that Gray had assaulted him and pulled a knife on him, federal prosecutors said.

She went after William Gray with a screwdriver and a baseball bat, and a short time before he was killed chased him in her car so that her boyfriend could point a gun at him, Trusty said.

William Gray filed a complaint with Montgomery County police, and a few weeks before he was killed he told Detective Joseph Mudano, "I believe I'm going to get killed," Mudano testified.

When he was found shot to death in his apartment in Germantown a few weeks later, Gray was carrying Mudano's business card.

Prosecutors say Gray used voodoo to put a hex on the police officers investigating her in 1991.

"Ms. Gray has been intimately involved in the practice of voodoo for a long time," Trusty told Magistrate Judge Jillyn K. Schulze in Greenbelt at a hearing Nov. 15, shortly after Gray's arrest.

"People surrounding her believe that somehow she has that ability to harm people, whether it is the indirect mystical way of voodoo or the direct way of committing homicides with firearms," Trusty told Schulze, according to a transcript of the hearing that was released yesterday.

Home wiretapped

Trusty said police wiretapped Gray's home in 1991 and that the device recorded "a ritual" in which she mentioned the investigators working on the case.

"She wished them harm," Trusty told Schulze.

Gray's relatives refused requests for an interview yesterday. Her lawyer, Assistant Public Defender Michael T. CitaraManis, also declined to comment on the case.

During a hearing Tuesday to argue for Gray's release, CitaraManis told U.S. District Judge Deborah K. Chasanow that much of the government's case is based on statements made more than 20 years ago.

"It's a case that has holes in it already," CitarManis said. "There's going to be more holes in it as the case goes on."

Gray was charged with murder in the deaths of Stribbling and Gray by Montgomery County prosecutors in 1990, based in part on statements to police from Gray's brother, Donald Mills, and her daughter, Regina Gray

Mudano said charges were dropped when Gray's brother and daughter recanted their incriminating statements after she was released on bond.

"They were afraid," Mudano said in testimony at the hearing Nov. 15.

Thomas Tamm, a former Montgomery County prosecutor, testified that a number of other potential witnesses "expressed fear" of Gray.

"I would say that fear permeated the case," Tamm told Schulze.

Mudano said he went to federal prosecutors with the case about a year ago, approaching Trusty because he knew him as a former Montgomery County prosecutor.

The detective testified that Gray threatened to kill her boyfriend, Andre Savoy, over the summer. She also called Savoy from a federal detention facility Nov. 13 and warned him to "take the Fifth" Amendment and remain silent, rather than testify against her, Mudano told Schulze.

CitarManis said Gray might have been warning Savoy not to testify because he could implicate himself and face prosecution based on what he said.

"It would probably be wise for some people close to Ms. Gray to take the Fifth and obtain counsel if they're being pressured by the government," he said.

CitaraManis said some of the potential witnesses against Gray might be relatives who have been involved in disputes over the insurance proceeds, he said.

Disputes over insurance

Some of Gray's critics have been involved in disputes over insurance proceeds, according to court records.

In a suit filed in Baltimore City Circuit Court in 1998, Clarence Goode's relatives argued that Gray should have been barred from collecting on a $100,000 policy on Goode's life. Goode was shot in the back, and his body was found in the trunk of his car in West Baltimore on June 21, 1996.

Vernie Goode, Goode's brother, said Gray ignored his brother's request that she stay away when he began seeing another woman.

"My brother was scared of this woman," Goode wrote in a 1998 letter to the city Circuit Court.

Gray is not the first woman accused of using voodoo in a case in which victims were killed for insurance money.

Geraldine Parrish, a storefront preacher from East Baltimore, is in prison, sentenced to multiple life terms, after being convicted in 1989 of arranging the murders of four friends and relatives to collect on their insurance policies.

Sun staff writers Michael Scarcella and Caitlin Francke contributed to this article.


Woman accused in 3 killings held without bailUpper Marlboro resident charged with fraud in collecting insurance

By Dennis O'Brien - BaltimoreSun.com

December 5, 2001

GREENBELT - Josephine Gray, who is accused in the deaths of three men and feared by some for her practice of voodoo, was ordered held without bond yesterday by a federal judge after prosecutors said that she has a history of threatening witnesses.

Gray, 55, of Upper Marlboro is charged with mail and wire fraud in collecting life insurance benefits on policies for two husbands and a boyfriend after she was "involved in" their killings, prosecutors said.

"We have very strong and compelling evidence that Ms. Gray was involved in all three murders and as a result, she profited," Assistant U.S. Attorney Sandra Wilkinson told U.S. District Judge Deborah K. Chasanow.

Gray, a mother of six and a grandmother of 11, is charged with defrauding three insurance companies by collecting benefits after the deaths of her first husband, Norman Stribbling, in 1974; her second husband, William Robert Gray, in 1990; and her boyfriend, Clarence Goode, in 1996.

Wilkinson told Chasanow that Gray made threats against all three victims, and alleged in court papers that witnesses were reluctant to come forward because of her powers with voodoo.

"Hesitant and reluctant witnesses have told the police, directly and indirectly, that they are fearful of the defendant - particularly because some believe in the power of voodoo, which Josephine Gray actively practices," according to papers filed yesterday by Wilkinson and Assistant U.S. Attorney James M. Trusty.

Gray offered an acquaintance $2,000 to kill Stribbling in 1974, according to federal prosecutors.

She chased William Gray in her car in 1990, pulling alongside his car so that Goode, who was her boyfriend, could point a handgun at him, Wilkinson said.

In 1996, Goode told police that Gray had assaulted him and pulled a knife on him, she said.

But Assistant Public Defender Michael T. CitaraManis said the government's witnesses are relatives of Gray's who have been involved in disputes with her over the insurance proceeds. He added that much of the government's case is based on statements heard more than 20 years ago.

"Who knows what was said back in 1974 or 1991?" he said.

Montgomery County prosecutors charged Gray in the killings of her husbands in 1974 and in 1990, but dropped charges after witnesses recanted and disappeared before trial, prosecutors said.

Gray has not been charged in the shooting June 21, 1996, of Goode, whose body was found in his car trunk in West Baltimore.

Chasanow noted testimony from a former Montgomery prosecutor who said that he had dropped murder charges against Gray in 1991 because "fear permeated the case" and witnesses were reluctant to come forward.


United States Court of Appeals
Fourth Circuit

United States v. Gray

UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee,
v.
Josephine Virginia GRAY, a/k/a Josephine Stribbling, a/k/a Josephine Mills, Defendant-Appellant.

No. 02-4990.

Argued:  Feb. 4, 2005. -- April 29, 2005

Before WIDENER and SHEDD, Circuit Judges, and James C. CACHERIS, Senior United States District Judge for the Eastern District of Virginia, sitting by designation.

ARGUED:Denise Charlotte Barrett, Assistant Federal Public Defender, Office of the Federal Public Defender, Baltimore, Maryland, for Appellant.  Sandra Wilkinson, Assistant United States Attorney, Office of the United States Attorney, Greenbelt, Maryland, for Appellee. ON BRIEF:  James Wyda, Federal Public Defender, Baltimore, Maryland, for Appellant.   Thomas M. DiBiagio, United States Attorney, James M. Trusty, Assistant United States Attorney, Greenbelt, Maryland, for Appellee.

A grand jury indicted Josephine Gray on five counts of mail fraud and three counts of wire fraud relating to her receipt of insurance proceeds following the deaths of her second husband and a former paramour.   Gray was convicted on all counts, and the district court sentenced her to 40 years' imprisonment, three years of supervised release, restitution in the amount of $170,000, and a special assessment of $800.   Gray now challenges her conviction, arguing that the evidence was insufficient to prove the elements of the charged offenses;  the district court improperly permitted the Government to reopen its case to prove the alleged mailings;  and the district court improperly admitted “other crimes” and hearsay evidence against Gray. We find no reversible error on these grounds and affirm Gray's conviction.   We vacate Gray's sentence, however, and remand this case for resentencing consistent with the Supreme Court's recent decision in United States v. Booker, 543U.S. 220, 125 S.Ct. 738, 160 L.Ed.2d 621 (2005).

I.

Wilma Jean Wilson met Gray in the late summer of 2000, and the two became friends.1  They spoke over the telephone, and Wilson sometimes visited Gray's house.   During one of those visits, Gray was busy cleaning a cluttered room and Wilson offered to help.   As they were talking, Gray stopped cleaning and left the room briefly;  when she returned, she brought newspaper articles describing her prior arrests.   In fact, those articles reported that Gray had killed her former husbands.   Wilson asked if the reports were true, and Gray replied that she was going to tell Wilson something she had never told anyone before and she did not want Wilson to say anything about it.   In an emotionless, matter-of-fact manner, Gray then told Wilson that “she had killed both her husbands and another gentleman.”   J.A. 144.

Gray told Wilson that she had killed her first husband, Norman Stribbling, because she was tired of being abused by him.   According to Wilson, “[s]he told me that they had gone out for a ride and that she had shot him․  [S]he left the body over on River Road, and it was set up to look like it was a robbery.”   J.A. 145.   Gray then confessed to Wilson that she had also killed her second husband, William “Robert” Gray. Although Gray said she was alone with Stribbling when she killed him, “she had help” killing Robert Gray. J.A. 146.   The help came from Clarence Goode, Gray's cousin and boyfriend.   Gray explained to Wilson that Goode “had tried to blackmail her,” demanding money in exchange for his silence about the murder of Robert Gray, so “she had to get rid of him too.”   J.A. 147.

A.

Gray's first husband, Stribbling, maintained a life insurance policy through John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company and named Gray as the beneficiary.   In the early morning of March 3, 1974, Stribbling was found dead in his parked car on River Road, near his home in Montgomery County, Maryland.   An autopsy revealed that Stribbling died from a single gunshot wound to the head.   Shortly after Stribbling's death, Gray made a claim for insurance benefits and later received a check in the amount of $16,000.

B.

Gray had been having an affair with Robert Gray while she was still married to Stribbling.   In August 1975, the couple bought a house in Gaithersburg, Maryland-using most of the proceeds from Stribbling's insurance policy as a down payment-and three months later they married.   Robert Gray maintained an insurance policy through Minnesota Mutual Life Insurance Company (“Minnesota Mutual”) that provided for payment of the mortgage on the Grays' house in Gaithersburg in the event of his death, with any excess going to his spouse.   Robert Gray also maintained an accidental death insurance policy through Life Insurance Company of North America (“LINA”) and designated Gray as his beneficiary.

Robert Gray left the Gaithersburg house in August 1990, telling family members that his wife was trying to kill him and that she was having an affair with Goode, who had been living with the Grays.   So convinced was Robert Gray that his wife intended him harm that he removed her as his beneficiary under two other insurance policies.   He asked relatives and friends for help in avoiding a possible assault by Gray or Goode.

In late August 1990, Robert Gray brought criminal charges against Gray, alleging that Gray had assaulted him at his workplace by swinging at him with a club and lunging at him with a knife.   Robert Gray also brought charges against Goode, alleging that Goode had threatened him with a 9-millimeter handgun.   Robert Gray appeared in court on October 5, 1990, but the case against Gray and Goode was continued.   Later that same day, Robert Gray was driving home when he noticed his wife's car behind him.   She was flashing her lights and signaling her husband to pull over.   When Robert Gray did not pull over, Gray drove her car alongside her husband's car.   As Robert Gray turned to look toward his wife, Goode sat up (from a reclined position) in the front passenger seat and pointed a gun at him.   Robert Gray reported this incident to police, and a warrant was issued for the arrests of Gray and Goode.   One week before the November 16, 1990 trial date, Robert Gray was discovered dead in his new apartment, shot once in the chest and once in the neck with a .45 caliber handgun.

Gray told police investigators that she was not involved in her husband's death and that she did not own a .45 caliber handgun.   Other witnesses testified, however, that they had seen Gray in possession of a .45 caliber handgun, and police investigators retrieved a .45 caliber bullet from her purse.   Gray also offered an alibi that other witnesses at trial discredited.

As a result of Robert Gray's death, Minnesota Mutual paid approximately $51,625 to Perpetual Savings Bank-the named beneficiary-to cover the mortgage on the Gaithersburg house.   Once the mortgage was satisfied, Gray sold the house for a significant profit.   The total benefit under Robert Gray's policy exceeded the mortgage payoff amount, so Minnesota Mutual expected to pay the excess benefit to Robert Gray's spouse.   Because Gray's whereabouts were unknown to Minnesota Mutual, that benefit was not processed for about ten years.

In 2001, federal law enforcement officers provided Minnesota Mutual a current address for Gray, and the company mailed Gray a form letter notifying her of the availability of the excess benefit and enclosing an application.   Having received this information, Gray telephoned Minnesota Mutual and asked whether the policy had a double indemnity benefit if Robert Gray's death was accidental;  it did not.   Gray then completed the claim application and mailed it to Minnesota Mutual.   The next week, Gray telephoned Minnesota Mutual to monitor the status of her claim.   Minnesota Mutual eventually mailed Gray a check for more than $2,400.

Gray made a claim for benefits under the LINA policy in May 1991.   LINA did not initially pay any benefit because it knew that Gray was a suspect in Robert Gray's murder.   After learning that Gray had been indicted, LINA asked Gray to disclaim her interest in the benefits under its policy.   She refused, so LINA filed an interpleader action to determine the proper beneficiary under Robert Gray's policy and Maryland law.   Gray counterclaimed against LINA, seeking the full benefit under the policy plus attorneys' fees.   LINA bore the costs of this litigation, which far exceeded the value of the policy.   LINA ultimately paid Gray $2,000 when the other beneficiaries abandoned their claims to the benefits.

Consistent with Maryland law, both Minnesota Mutual and LINA refused to pay benefits to named beneficiaries who wrongfully caused the death of the insured.   Both Minnesota Mutual and LINA relied upon local law enforcement investigators to determine whether Gray was involved in Robert Gray's death.

C.

Gray told Wilson that she “had to get rid of” Goode because he was blackmailing her.   Goode had conspired with Gray in Robert Gray's murder, and he was demanding “part of the insurance money that she received” from Robert Gray's death in return for his silence.   J.A. 147.   On June 21, 1996, Baltimore City Police officers found Goode's body in the trunk of his car;  he had been shot in the back with a 9-millimeter handgun.   Goode had told his sister that he was going to visit Gray at her house, where police later found 9-millimeter bullets and a large blood stain on the floor of the garage.

Goode maintained a life insurance policy through Interstate Assurance Company (“Interstate Assurance”) and named Gray as his beneficiary under the policy.   Shortly after an incident in which Gray pointed a knife at him, Goode closed the bank account from which the premiums for this policy were paid.   Interstate Assurance advised Goode by letter in June 1996 that he had a 60-day grace period before the policy would be cancelled for non-payment.   Goode's mail was sent to Gray's address, however, and Gray killed Goode shortly after learning that the policy might be cancelled.   Gray filed a claim for benefits in September 1996, but Interstate Assurance refused to pay because it suspected that Gray was involved in Goode's death.   When Gray had not been arrested after two years, Interstate Assurance filed an interpleader action to determine the proper beneficiary under Goode's policy.   In the course of that litigation, Gray filed pleadings, by mail, in which she flatly denied any involvement in Goode's death.   Because Gray's guilt could not be proved at that time, the parties settled the interpleader action and Interstate Assurance paid Gray $99,990 in benefits under Goode's policy.

D.

Shortly after Goode's murder, Gray showed her new boyfriend, Andre Savoy, a copy of Goode's insurance policy and told him that she planned to buy him a new Mustang GT with the proceeds.   Gray never bought Savoy that car, but she did make inquiries about obtaining life insurance on him.   According to Wilson, Gray asked her for help in obtaining insurance on Savoy through a Virginia company.   When federal agents contacted Wilson in February 2002, she immediately asked about Savoy.   She thought Gray might have tried to kill him too.

E.

Counts One through Four of the indictment charged Gray with executing a scheme to defraud Minnesota Mutual and LINA of life insurance benefits they paid Gray as a result of Robert Gray's death.   Counts Five through Eight charged Gray with executing a scheme to defraud Interstate Assurance of the benefits it paid Gray as the result of Goode's death.   The indictment alleged that Gray “intentionally caused the death[s]” of both Robert Gray and Goode and then fraudulently concealed her role in their murders from the insurance companies.   As she submitted claims for benefits and telephoned the insurance companies to monitor her claims, and in papers filed in legal proceedings concerning the insurance policies, Gray consistently denied having any involvement in the murders.

II.

Gray challenges her conviction on several grounds.   First, she argues that the evidence was insufficient to support a conviction on all counts of the indictment because the insurance companies-the victims identified in the indictment-had no interest in the benefits paid under the policies.   Second, Gray argues that the evidence was insufficient to support a conviction on Counts One through Four because it did not prove that she intended to defraud Minnesota Mutual by her conduct.   Third, Gray challenges the district court's denial of her motion for judgment of acquittal on Counts Seven and Eight because the Government failed to prove the alleged mailings in its case-in-chief.   Finally, Gray argues that she is entitled to a new trial because the district court erroneously admitted into evidence “other crimes” evidence related to the Stribbling murder and hearsay testimony from Robert Gray.

A.

Gray first contends that her convictions on all counts of the indictment should be vacated because the evidence failed to establish that the insurance companies had any property interest in the benefits paid under the relevant insurance policies.   Gray's conviction must be upheld if “there is substantial evidence, taking the view most favorable to the Government,” to support it.  Glasser, 315 U.S. at 80, 62 S.Ct. 457.  “[S]ubstantial evidence is evidence that a reasonable finder of fact could accept as adequate and sufficient to support a conclusion of a defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.”  United States v. Burgos, 94 F.3d 849, 862 (4th Cir.1996) (en banc ).

Both the mail fraud and wire fraud statutes criminalize “devis[ing] or intending to devise any scheme or artifice to defraud, or for obtaining money or property by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises.”  18 U.S.C. §§ 1341, 1343.   It is essential to a conviction under these statutes that the victim of the alleged fraud actually have an interest in the money or property obtained by the defendant.  United States v. Adler, 186 F.3d 574, 576 (4th Cir.1999).   Gray contends that although she obtained more than $150,000 in insurance proceeds from Minnesota Mutual, LINA, and Interstate Assurance, that money never actually belonged to the insurance companies.

The Supreme Court has made it clear that the federal fraud statutes should be “interpreted broadly insofar as property rights are concerned.”   McNally v. United States, 483 U.S. 350, 356, 107 S.Ct. 2875, 97 L.Ed.2d 292 (1987);  see also United States v. Mancuso, 42 F.3d 836, 845 (4th Cir.1994) (stating that “the scope of property interests protected is to be construed fairly widely”).   The Government need not prove that the victim suffered a monetary loss as a result of the alleged fraud;  it is sufficient that the victim was deprived of some right over its property.  Carpenter v. United States, 484 U.S. 19, 26-27, 108 S.Ct. 316, 98 L.Ed.2d 275 (1987).   In the analogous context of the federal bank fraud statute, we have stated that property is anything in which a person has a “right that could be assigned, traded, bought, and otherwise disposed of.”  Mancuso, 42 F.3d at 845.

A property owner has an intangible right to control the disposition of its assets.   See Crane v. Commissioner, 331 U.S. 1, 6, 67 S.Ct. 1047, 91 L.Ed. 1301 (1947).   The Supreme Court noted in McNally that the defendant's mail fraud conviction might have been affirmed had the jury been “charged that to convict it must find that the Commonwealth was deprived of control over how its money was spent.”  483 U.S. at 360, 107 S.Ct. 2875.   Since McNally was decided, several other circuits have concluded that the mail fraud and wire fraud statutes cover fraudulent schemes to deprive victims of their rights to control the disposition of their own assets.   See United States v. Welch, 327 F.3d 1081, 1108 (10th Cir.2003);  United States v. Dinome, 86 F.3d 277, 283-84 (2d Cir.1996);  United States v. Madeoy, 912 F.2d 1486, 1492 (D.C.Cir.1990);  United States v. Shyres, 898 F.2d 647, 652 (8th Cir.1990);  United States v. Kerkman, 866 F.2d 877, 880 (6th Cir.1989);  United States v. Fagan, 821 F.2d 1002, 1011 n. 6 (5th Cir.1987);  cf.  United States v. Catalfo, 64 F.3d 1070, 1077 (7th Cir.1995) (concluding that the victim had a property interest in “the right to control its risk of loss”).

In this case, the insurance companies did, in fact, suffer monetary losses as the result of Gray's fraud.   The money that Gray received was money that belonged to the insurance companies:  They wrote the checks, and those checks were backed by the insurance companies' assets.   Payment of benefits to Gray represented a loss to the insurance companies and no one else.   Moreover, Minnesota Mutual and Interstate Assurance had a property interest in controlling the disposition of their assets, i.e., paying out benefits in accordance with policy terms and applicable law.   By killing Robert Gray and Goode, Gray manufactured the occurrences that gave rise to the insurance companies' payment obligations.   By submitting claims for benefits under the policies, without acknowledging her culpability in the insureds' deaths, Gray sought to obtain money from the insurance companies under false pretenses and to interfere with their ability to dispose of their own assets in the proper manner.2

Gray contends that the insurance companies were merely disinterested third parties that held the insureds' money for the named beneficiaries.   Thus, the only true victims of Gray's fraud were the rightful beneficiaries under the policies, not the insurance companies.   Whether or not the insurance companies paid the proper parties at the end of the day, they would not have been required to pay anyone had Gray not killed their insureds.   In other words, the insurance companies were deprived of the use of their assets by Gray's accelerating the necessity to pay benefits.3  Taken in the light most favorable to the Government, the evidence supports the jury's finding that Gray intended to deprive the insurance companies of their “money” and “property” by means of a fraudulent scheme.

B.

Gray next contends that her conviction on Counts One through Four-the counts relating to the Minnesota Mutual policy on Robert Gray-should be vacated because the evidence was not sufficient to prove that she lied to police about her involvement in Robert Gray's death with the intent to defraud Minnesota Mutual.   Again, we must affirm Gray's conviction on these counts if the evidence was “adequate and sufficient to support a conclusion of [her] guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.”  Burgos, 94 F.3d at 862.

“Even in the absence of a fiduciary, statutory, or other independent legal duty to disclose material information, common-law fraud includes acts taken to conceal, create a false impression, mislead, or otherwise deceive in order to prevent the other party from acquiring material information.”   United States v. Colton, 231 F.3d 890, 898 (4th Cir.2000).   Although simple nondisclosure generally is not sufficient to constitute fraud, the Supreme Court has noted that “mere silence is quite different from concealment,” and in some cases “a suppression of the truth may amount to a suggestion of falsehood.”  Stewart v. Wyoming Cattle Ranche Co., 128 U.S. 383, 388, 9 S.Ct. 101, 32 L.Ed. 439 (1888).   Thus, we have stated that “deceptive acts or contrivances intended to hide information, mislead, avoid suspicion, or prevent further inquiry into a material matter” may constitute fraud.  Colton, 231 F.3d at 899.

The evidence showed that Gray killed Robert Gray, at least in part, in order to obtain life insurance benefits under his Minnesota Mutual policy.   During the police investigation of Robert Gray's murder, Gray did not remain silent.   Rather, she falsely denied any involvement in the murder, falsely denied owning a gun matching the description of the murder weapon, and even offered a false alibi.   Gray's conduct helped keep police investigators-and Minnesota Mutual, which relied upon the police investigation-from determining that she was involved in Robert Gray's death.

By 2001, when Gray learned that the excess benefit was available, Gray had already been made aware that insurance companies could not pay benefits to their insureds' murderers.   LINA and Interstate Assurance had resisted paying benefits to Gray specifically because they suspected that she was involved in the murders of Robert Gray and Goode, and Gray confronted the issue directly in the Interstate Assurance interpleader action.   In light of this experience with other insurance companies, Gray responded to the news that the excess benefit was available by calling Minnesota Mutual to inquire whether she would be entitled to a double-indemnity benefit if Robert Gray's death was accidental.   Of course, Gray knew that his death was not accidental.   When she ultimately submitted her claim for the excess benefit, Gray made no mention of her involvement in the murder and did not correct any of the false information she had earlier given to the police.   Thus, from the time of Robert Gray's murder, Gray actively concealed information that was critical to Minnesota Mutual's payment obligations.4  Taken in the light most favorable to the Government, the evidence was sufficient to prove that Gray intended to defraud Minnesota Mutual and thus sufficient to support Gray's conviction on Counts One through Four.

C.

Gray argues that her conviction on Counts Seven and Eight-the mail fraud counts relating to the pleadings she filed in the Interstate Assurance interpleader action-should be vacated because the district court relied on evidence presented after she moved for a judgment of acquittal under Fed.R.Crim.P. 29 and the district court reserved ruling on that motion.   We review de novo the district court's denial of a motion for judgment of acquittal.  United States v. Gallimore, 247 F.3d 134, 136 (4th Cir.2001).

In order to obtain a conviction under the mail fraud statute, the Government must prove that the defendant caused the United States mails to be used in furtherance of a fraudulent scheme.  18 U.S.C. § 1341.   Counts Seven and Eight of the indictment alleged that Gray caused two specific pleadings to be mailed “from Rockville, Maryland to the Circuit Court of Baltimore City, Maryland in Baltimore, Maryland.”   J.A. 31-32.

At the hearing on Gray's Rule 29 motion, Gray's counsel argued that the Government's evidence failed to prove that these pleadings had been mailed to the courthouse.   The Government replied that it was relying upon three pieces of circumstantial evidence:  (1) the certificates of service showing that the person responsible for the pleadings mailed them to opposing counsel, (2) the date stamps on the file-stamped copies of the pleadings, indicating that the pleadings were received by the court several days after the date shown on the certificates of service, and (3) the law firm that represented Gray was located in Rockville, Maryland, while the court was located in Baltimore.

After the district court announced that it would reserve ruling on the Rule 29 motion, the Government moved to reopen its case-in-chief in order to present testimony from Gray's former counsel concerning the manner in which he typically filed pleadings.   The district court granted the Government's motion, and Gray's former attorney, John Kudel, testified that he mailed the pleadings at issue in Counts Seven and Eight to the Circuit Court of Baltimore City. The district court later denied Gray's Rule 29 motion.

Gray argues that the district court was not permitted to consider Kudel's testimony under Rule 29(b), which states that

The court may reserve ruling on the motion, proceed with the trial (where the motion is made before the close of all the evidence), submit the case to the jury, and decide the motion either before the jury returns a verdict or after it returns a verdict of guilty or is discharged without having returned a verdict.   If the court reserves decision, it must decide the motion on the basis of the evidence at the time the ruling was reserved.

(Emphasis added.)   The final sentence of the Rule was intended to address the problem that arises “where the defense decides to present evidence and run[s] the risk that such evidence will support the government's case.”   Fed.R.Crim.P. 29(b) advisory committee note.   Thus, a district court may not reserve ruling on a defendant's motion for judgment of acquittal and then later penalize the defendant by relying upon the defendant's own evidence to deny the motion.   See United States v. Wahl, 290 F.3d 370, 375 (D.C.Cir.2002) (“The district court in this case reserved Wahl's motion at the close of the government's case.   Any ruling on that motion, then, should have been made solely on the evidence offered by the government.”).

The mailings alleged in Counts Seven and Eight were proved solely by the Government's evidence, not Gray's.   Nevertheless, Gray contends that the district court improperly considered the evidence presented by the Government after it initially rested.   Under Gray's theory, a district court's reserving its ruling on a defendant's Rule 29 motion seals the evidentiary record completely for purposes of that motion, even excluding the possibility that the Government may reopen its case-in-chief.

We disagree.  Rule 29 provides that a district court may grant a motion for judgment of acquittal only “[a]fter the government closes its evidence or after the close of all the evidence.”  Fed.R.Crim.P. 29(a).   Where the district court properly permits the Government to reopen its case-in-chief, see United States v. Abbas, 74 F.3d 506, 510 (4th Cir.1996), it cannot be said that the Government “closes its evidence” before the conclusion of its reopened case.5  Likewise, the district court cannot be said to reserve decision under Rule 29 until that time, when a decision would otherwise be appropriate.   Under Rule 29(b), the district court would be permitted to consider all of the evidence presented in the Government's case-in-chief-before and after the district court permitted reopening-when it ultimately rules on the Rule 29 motion.6

The district court permitted the Government to reopen its case for the limited purpose of presenting testimony from Kudel establishing that he mailed the pleadings specified in Counts Seven and Eight.   The Government initially intended to present this testimony-Kudel was on the Government's witness list-but inadvertently rested without putting him on the witness stand.   Kudel's testimony was plainly relevant, admissible, and helpful to the jury, and Gray had ample opportunity to cross-examine him.   There was no unfair surprise and no risk of distorting the importance of Kudel's testimony.   Accordingly, the district court did not abuse its discretion in permitting the Government to reopen its case-in-chief to present this evidence, see Abbas, 74 F.3d at 511 (describing the factors to be considered in ruling on a motion to reopen), and it was entirely appropriate for the district court to consider Kudel's testimony in denying Gray's Rule 29 motion.

D.

Gray seeks a new trial based upon the district court's admission of testimony concerning (1) her involvement in Stribbling's murder and (2) Robert Gray's fear for his safety.   We review the district court's evidentiary rulings for abuse of discretion.   See United States v. Queen, 132 F.3d 991, 995 (4th Cir.1997).

1.

Over Gray's objection, the district court admitted certain testimony concerning the 1974 murder of Stribbling, Gray's first husband.   The jury heard testimony describing the crime scene and the autopsy results, as well as testimony from two men who claimed that Gray had solicited them (unsuccessfully) to kill Stribbling for money. Another witness testified that Gray had offered her money to provide Gray an alibi for the time of the murder.   Finally, the jury heard testimony from one witness (in addition to Wilma Jean Wilson) who said that Gray had admitted shooting Stribbling.   The district court instructed the jury that the evidence concerning the Stribbling murder was admitted only “as it may relate to the defendant's motivation with regard to the conduct alleged in this case relating to William Robert Gray. You may not consider it for any other purpose.”   J.A. 649.

Gray contends that this evidence should have been excluded under Fed.R.Evid. 404(b), which provides as follows:

Evidence of other crimes, wrongs, or acts is not admissible to prove the character of a person in order to show action in conformity therewith.   It may, however, be admissible for other purposes, such as proof of motive, opportunity, intent, preparation, plan, knowledge, identity, or absence of mistake or accident․

We have noted that “Rule 404(b) is viewed as an inclusive rule, admitting all evidence of other crimes or acts except that which tends to prove only criminal disposition.”  United States v. Young, 248 F.3d 260, 270-71 (4th Cir.2001) (internal quotations omitted).

Evidence of “other crimes” is admissible under Rules 404(b) and 403 if four conditions are satisfied.   First, “[t]he evidence must be relevant to an issue, such as an element of an offense, and must not be offered to establish the general character of the defendant.   In this regard, the more similar the prior act is (in terms of physical similarity or mental state) to the act being proved, the more relevant it becomes.”  Queen, 132 F.3d at 997.   Second, “[t]he act must be necessary in the sense that it is probative of an essential claim or an element of the offense.”  Id. Third, “[t]he evidence must be reliable.”  Id. Finally, “the evidence's probative value must not be substantially outweighed by confusion or unfair prejudice in the sense that it tends to subordinate reason to emotion in the factfinding process.”  Id.

All four conditions are satisfied here.   The Government was required to prove that Gray intentionally killed Robert Gray and then intentionally concealed her crime from Minnesota Mutual and LINA. The defense argued at trial, however, that Gray was merely a passive beneficiary of Robert Gray's death;  she was not involved in his murder in any way;  and the fact that she collected insurance proceeds under Robert Gray's policies was entirely coincidental.   In light of the evidence proving that Gray killed Robert Gray, the evidence concerning the Stribbling murder was “useful as reducing the possibility that the [killing of Robert Gray] was done with innocent intent.”   Queen, 132 F.3d at 995 (internal quotations omitted).   Thus, this evidence was relevant.

Because a conviction of mail fraud requires proof that the defendant intended to defraud the victim, see Dan River, Inc. v. Icahn, 701 F.2d 278, 291 (4th Cir.1983), the evidence concerning the Stribbling murder was also necessary.   This evidence proved that Gray participated in the murder of her first husband with the assistance of Robert Gray and later collected insurance proceeds under her husband's policy.   She later killed Robert Gray in order to eliminate the only witness to the Stribbling murder and to collect even more insurance proceeds.   Although the Government was not required to prove Gray's particular motive for killing Robert Gray, this evidence was probative of her intent to commit the murder and defraud the insurance companies.

The evidence was also reliable.   The jury heard testimony from Gray's friend Wilma Jean Wilson (to whom Gray confessed killing her first husband), other witnesses whom Gray solicited to kill Stribbling and to provide a false alibi for her, police officers who described the Stribbling murder scene, and insurance company representatives who explained how Gray benefitted from Stribbling's death.   These witnesses testified under oath and were subject to cross-examination, such that Gray had ample opportunity to challenge the reliability of their accounts.

Finally, the probative value of this evidence was not substantially outweighed by its prejudicial impact, “in the sense that it tend[ed] to subordinate reason to emotion in the factfinding process.”  Queen, 132 F.3d at 997.   The district court excluded other evidence concerning the Stribbling murder and carefully limited the scope of the Government's case on this issue.   In addition, the district court specifically instructed the jury that it could consider evidence concerning the Stribbling murder only in connection with the murder of Robert Gray and not for any other purpose.   This evidence was probative, and although it was harmful to Gray, it was not unduly prejudicial.   In sum, the district court did not abuse its discretion in admitting testimony concerning Gray's involvement in the Stribbling murder.

2.

The district court also admitted into evidence several out-of-court statements made by Robert Gray during the three months preceding his murder:

Robert Gray's criminal complaint alleging that Goode had tossed a 9-millimeter handgun on the table at his house to provoke an argument;

Robert Gray's criminal complaint alleging that Gray had tried to stab him with a knife and attack him with a club;

Statements made by Robert Gray to Darnell Gray and a police detective, claiming that Gray and Goode had assaulted him in October 1990;  and

Statements made by Robert Gray to Rodney Gray claiming that Goode had pulled a gun on him outside a restaurant in September or October 1990.

Although out-of-court statements ordinarily may not be admitted to prove the truth of the matters asserted, the doctrine of forfeiture by wrongdoing allows such statements to be admitted where the defendant's own misconduct rendered the declarant unavailable as a witness at trial.   The Supreme Court applied this doctrine in Reynolds v. United States, 98 U.S. 145, 25 L.Ed. 244 (1878), stating that“[t]he Constitution gives the accused the right to a trial at which he should be confronted with the witnesses against him;  but if a witness is absent by [the accused's] own wrongful procurement, he cannot complain if competent evidence is admitted to supply the place of that which he has kept away.”  Id. at 158.   By 1996, every circuit to address the issue had recognized this doctrine.   See United States v. Houlihan, 92 F.3d 1271, 1280 (1st Cir.1996);  United States v. Mastrangelo, 693 F.2d 269, 273-74 (2d Cir.1982);  Steele v. Taylor, 684 F.2d 1193, 1202 (6th Cir.1982);  United States v. Thevis, 665 F.2d 616, 631 (5th Cir.1982);  United States v. Balano, 618 F.2d 624, 629 (10th Cir.1979);  United States v. Carlson, 547 F.2d 1346, 1357 (8th Cir.1976).7

Fed.R.Evid. 804(b)(6), which took effect in 1997, codifies the common-law doctrine of forfeiture by wrongdoing as an exception to the general rule barring admission of hearsay evidence.  Fed.R.Evid. 804(b)(6) advisory committee note.   Under Rule 804(b)(6), “[a] statement offered against a party that has engaged or acquiesced in wrong-doing that was intended to, and did procure the unavailability of the declarant as a witness” is admissible at trial.   In order to apply the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception, the district court must find, by the preponderance of the evidence, see United States v. Scott, 284 F.3d 758, 762 (7th Cir.2002),8 that (1) the defendant engaged or acquiesced in wrongdoing (2) that was intended to render the declarant unavailable as a witness and (3) that did, in fact, render the declarant unavailable as a witness.   The district court need not hold an independent evidentiary hearing if the requisite findings may be made based upon evidence presented in the course of the trial.  United States v. Johnson, 219 F.3d 349, 356 (4th Cir.2000).

Gray contends that Rule 804(b)(6) should not apply in this case because she did not intend to procure Robert Gray's unavailability as a witness at this trial.  “Because the Federal Rules of Evidence are a legislative enactment, we turn to the traditional tools of statutory construction in order to construe their provisions.   We begin with the language itself.”  Beech Aircraft Corp. v. Rainey, 488 U.S. 153, 163, 109 S.Ct. 439, 102 L.Ed.2d 445 (1988).   The text of Rule 804(b)(6) requires only that the defendant intend to render the declarant unavailable “as a witness.”   The text does not require that the declarant would otherwise be a witness at any particular trial, nor does it limit the subject matter of admissible statements to events distinct from the events at issue in the trial in which the statements are offered.   Thus, we conclude that Rule 804(b)(6) applies whenever the defendant's wrongdoing was intended to, and did, render the declarant unavailable as a witness against the defendant, without regard to the nature of the charges at the trial in which the declarant's statements are offered.   Accord Dhinsa, 243 F.3d at 652-53;  Emery, 186 F.3d at 926;  4 C. Mueller & L. Kirkpatrick, Federal Evidence § 507.1, at 268 (2d ed. Supp.2004) (“It seems that there is no limit on the subject matter of statements that can be admitted under this exception, which means that statements in which the declarant implicates a defendant in a plot to kill the declarant himself can fit the exception.”).

Our interpretation of Rule 804(b)(6) advances the clear purpose of the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception.   The advisory committee noted its specific goal to implement a “prophylactic rule to deal with abhorrent behavior which strikes at the heart of the system of justice itself.”  Fed.R.Evid. 804(b)(6) advisory committee note (internal quotations omitted);  see also United States v. Thompson, 286 F.3d 950, 962 (7th Cir.2002) (stating that “the primary reasoning behind this rule” is “to deter criminals from intimidating or ‘taking care of’ potential witnesses against them”).   More generally, federal courts have recognized that the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception is necessary to prevent wrongdoers from profiting by their misconduct.   See Reynolds, 98 U.S. at 158-59 (holding that a criminal defendant waives his right to confront a witness whose absence his own misconduct procured and stating that this rule “has its foundation in the maxim that no one shall be permitted to take advantage of his own wrong”);  Emery, 186 F.3d at 926 (stating that the Rule “establishes the general proposition that a defendant may not benefit from his or her wrongful prevention of future testimony from a witness or potential witness”);  White, 116 F.3d at 911 (stating that “where the defendant has silenced a witness through the use of threats, violence or murder, admission of the victim's prior statements at least partially offsets the perpetrator's rewards for his misconduct”);  Houlihan, 92 F.3d at 1279 (applying the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception and noting that “courts will not suffer a party to profit by his own wrongdoing”).

Federal courts have sought to effect the purpose of the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception by construing broadly the elements required for its application.   See, e.g., Dhinsa, 243 F.3d at 652 (noting that the Rule may apply where the declarant was only a potential witness, i.e., “there was no ongoing proceeding in which the declarant was scheduled to testify”);  Cherry, 217 F.3d at 820 (holding that the declarant's statements may be admitted against a person who participated in a conspiracy to silence the declarant even if that person did not himself engage in witness intimidation or other wrongdoing);  Steele, 684 F.2d at 1201 (stating that “any significant interference” with the declarant's appearance as a witness, including the exercise of “persuasion and control” or an instruction to invoke the Fifth Amendment privilege, amounts to wrongdoing that forfeits the defendant's right to confront the declarant).   Although the Rule requires that the wrongdoing was intended to render the declarant unavailable as a witness, we have held that a defendant need only intend “in part” to procure the declarant's unavailability.  Johnson, 219 F.3d at 356;  accord Dhinsa, 243 F.3d at 654;  Houlihan, 92 F.3d at 1279.

Like these applications of the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception, our interpretation of Rule 804(b)(6) ensures that a defendant will not be permitted to avoid the evidentiary impact of statements made by his victim, whether or not he suspected that the victim would be a witness at the trial in which the evidence is offered against him.   A defendant who wrongfully and intentionally renders a declarant unavailable as a witness in any proceeding forfeits the right to exclude, on hearsay grounds, the declarant's statements at that proceeding and any subsequent proceeding.   See United States v. Aguiar, 975 F.2d 45, 47 (2d Cir.1992) (affirming the district court's admission of hearsay testimony to prove witness tampering as well as an underlying drug conspiracy, and stating that “[a] defendant who procures a witness's absence waives the right of confrontation for all purposes with regard to that witness”).9

Having rejected Gray's interpretation of Rule 804(b)(6), we need only determine whether the district court properly applied the Rule in admitting Robert Gray's out-of-court statements.   Those statements were admissible only if the district court properly found, by a preponderance of the evidence, that (1) Gray engaged in some wrongdoing (2) that was intended to procure Robert Gray's unavailability as a witness and (3) that did, in fact, procure his unavailability as a witness.   The district court in this case found that Robert Gray “was killed prior to the court date on November 15 and 16, and after the defendant was well aware of his status as a witness, justifies the inference that ․ the killing was motivated ․ to prevent [Robert Gray] from being available ․ at court proceedings.”   J.A. 205.   These findings are supported by the evidence and are sufficient to warrant application of the Rule 804(b)(6).   Accordingly, the district court did not abuse its discretion in admitting testimony concerning out-of-court statements made by Robert Gray.

III.

In addition to challenging her conviction, Gray argues in a supplemental brief that her sentence should be vacated in light of the Supreme Court's recent decision in United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220, 125 S.Ct. 738, 160 L.Ed.2d 621 (2005).   Because Gray did not object to her sentence in the district court, our review is for plain error.   See United States v. Olano, 507 U.S. 725, 731-32, 113 S.Ct. 1770, 123 L.Ed.2d 508 (1993);  Fed.R.Crim.P. 52(b).  Under this standard of review, “[t]here must be an error that is plain and that affects substantial rights.   Moreover, Rule 52(b) leaves the decision to correct the forfeited error within the sound discretion of the court of appeals, and the court should not exercise that discretion unless the error seriously affects the fairness, integrity or public reputation of judicial proceedings.”  Olano, 507 U.S. at 732, 113 S.Ct. 1770 (internal quotations omitted).

 The district court calculated Gray's sentence using two alternative methods.   In the first calculation, the district court applied a cross-reference to the first-degree murder guideline, U.S.S.G. § 2A1.1. In order to apply this guideline, the district court first had to find that Gray's intentional murders of Gray and Goode were premeditated.   Under § 2A1.1, Gray's base offense level was 43.   In the second calculation, the district court started with the base offense level for mail fraud and then applied enhancements for two specific offense characteristics-(1) the offense involved more than one victim and (2) the offense involved possession of a firearm.   The court then departed upward under U.S.S.G. § 5K2.1 based upon a finding that Gray's schemes to defraud involved two premeditated murders.   The result of this second calculation was an adjusted offense level of 43.   Under either calculation, Gray's sentence was increased based upon a factual finding-that the murders of Robert Gray and Goode were premeditated-that the jury was not required to make.

This case is similar to United States v. Hughes, 401 F.3d 540, 2005 WL 628224 (4th Cir. Mar.16, 2005), where we vacated a criminal sentence and remanded for resentencing in accordance with Booker.   As in Hughes, the district court here imposed the sentence mandated by the Sentencing Guidelines, based in part upon a fact that was not found by the jury.   See id. 547-48, at *5 (concluding that application of sentencing enhancements based on judge-found facts was “error” that was “plain”).   As in Hughes, the defendant here was sentenced to a longer term of imprisonment than the Sentencing Guidelines would have required had the district court not considered that fact.   See id. at 547-49, *5-*6 (concluding that imposition of a sentence in excess of the maximum sentence permitted by the jury's verdict affected the defendant's substantial rights).   Consistent with Hughes, we conclude that the district court committed an error that was plain and that affects Gray's substantial rights, and we exercise our discretion to notice the error.   Accordingly, we remand this case for resentencing in accordance with Booker.10

IV.

We affirm Gray's conviction for mail fraud and wire fraud.   The evidence was sufficient to prove all the elements of each offense, and the district court's evidentiary rulings were correct.   We vacate the sentence, however, and remand for resentencing in accordance with Booker.

AFFIRMED IN PART, VACATED IN PART, AND REMANDED

FOOTNOTES

1.   Because Gray challenges the sufficiency of the evidence to support her conviction, we view the evidence adduced at trial in the light most favorable to the Government.   See Glasser v. United States, 315 U.S. 60, 80, 62 S.Ct. 457, 86 L.Ed. 680 (1942).

2.   Other courts have affirmed fraud convictions where the defendant, like Gray, created the circumstances giving rise to a claim and then made a claim for benefits under the policy.   See, e.g., United States v. Hartmann, 958 F.2d 774, 780-81 (7th Cir.1992) (affirming convictions for mail fraud and wire fraud where the defendant participated in the murder of her husband in order to obtain benefits under life and mortgage insurance policies);  United States v. Duncan, 919 F.2d 981, 990-92 (5th Cir.1990) (affirming a mail fraud conviction where the defendant participated in staged car accidents in order to obtain benefits under hospitalization insurance policies);  United States v. Candoli, 870 F.2d 496, 511 (9th Cir.1989) (affirming a mail fraud conviction where the defendant participated in a conspiracy to commit arson and then made claims for insurance benefits);  United States v. Lundy, 809 F.2d 392, 397 (7th Cir.1987) (same).

3.   As Gray herself notes, Interstate Assurance disclaimed its interest in the benefits payable under its policy when it filed its interpleader action, a step that was necessary because Interstate Assurance held an interest in those funds before that point, i.e., the time when Gray was executing her fraudulent scheme.   Moreover, Gray's contention that the insurance companies merely held the insured's funds for eventual payment to the rightful beneficiaries is refuted by the fact that both Minnesota Mutual and Interstate Assurance paid out much more in benefits than they had received in premiums paid by their insureds.

4.   Gray argues that the evidence fails to show that she defrauded Minnesota Mutual with respect to the mortgage payoff to Perpetual Savings Bank in 1991.   Although the evidence concerning the mortgage payoff to Perpetual Savings Bank was important to describe the context of the fraud on Minnesota Mutual, it was not necessary for conviction on Counts One through Four. Those counts charged Gray with making specific telephone calls and causing specific mailings in April and May 2001 in connection with her claim for the excess benefit, not the mortgage payoff.   The evidence established that the excess benefit would not have been available at all but for Gray's killing Robert Gray in 1991.   Other evidence proved that Gray intended to profit by the murder, and that was sufficient to prove a scheme to defraud Minnesota Mutual of insurance benefits.   The fact that Gray did not make a claim for the mortgage payoff-she could not make such a claim under the policy-in no way diminishes the evidence establishing that she killed Robert Gray in order to make available the claim for insurance benefits that she later invoked.

5.   A district court may allow the Government to reopen its case even after the defendant makes a Rule 29 motion.   See United States v. Mojica-Baez, 229 F.3d 292, 299-300 (1st Cir.2000) (affirming the district court's reopening the Government's case to present a stipulation proving a bank's federally-insured status);  United States v. Rouse, 111 F.3d 561, 573 (8th Cir.1997) (affirming the district court's reopening the Government's case to present a stipulation establishing that the charged offenses occurred on federal lands);  United States v. Leslie, 103 F.3d 1093, 1104 (2d Cir.1997) (affirming the defendant's conviction where the Government presented evidence of a bank's federally-insured status only after the defendant moved for judgment of acquittal).   As the Ninth Circuit has noted, “[o]ne purpose of Rule 29 motions is to alert the court to omitted proof so that, if it so chooses, it can allow the government to submit additional evidence.”  United States v. Suarez-Rosario, 237 F.3d 1164, 1167 (9th Cir.2001) (affirming the district court's decision to allow the Government to reopen its case to prove the defendant's identity).

6.   So long as the district court acted within its discretion in permitting the Government to reopen its case-in-chief, the defendant cannot complain that he has been deprived of the protection afforded by Rule 29(b).  In no event can the defendant's evidence be used to deny his Rule 29 motion.

7.   The Supreme Court recently confirmed the continuing vitality of the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing doctrine.   See Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36, 124 S.Ct. 1354, 1370, 158 L.Ed.2d 177 (2004).

8.   In addition to Scott, see United States v. Zlatogur, 271 F.3d 1025, 1028 (11th Cir.2001);  United States v. Dhinsa, 243 F.3d 635, 653-54 (2d Cir.2001);  United States v. Cherry, 217 F.3d 811, 815 (10th Cir.2000);  United States v. Emery, 186 F.3d 921, 926-27 (8th Cir.1999);  United States v. White, 116 F.3d 903, 912 (D.C.Cir.1997);  Houlihan, 92 F.3d at 1280.   The Fifth Circuit requires proof of the predicate facts by clear and convincing evidence.  Thevis, 665 F.2d at 631.

9.   We emphasize that the intent requirement in Rule 804(b)(6) continues to limit application of the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception to those cases in which the defendant intended, at least in part, to render the declarant unavailable as a witness against him.   See Johnson, 219 F.3d at 356.   Absent such intent, Rule 804(b)(6) has no application.

10.   Although the Sentencing Guidelines are no longer mandatory, Booker makes clear that a sentencing court must still “consult [the] Guidelines and take them into account when sentencing.”  125 S.Ct. at 767.   On remand, the district court should first determine the appropriate sentencing range under the Guidelines, making all factual findings appropriate for that determination.  Hughes, 401 F.3d at 546, 2005 WL 628224, at *4. The court should consider this sentencing range along with the other factors described in 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a), and then impose a sentence.  Id. If that sentence falls outside the Guidelines range, the court should explain its reasons for the departure, as required by 18 U.S.C. § 3553(c)(2).  Id. The sentence must be “within the statutorily prescribed range and ․ reasonable.”  Id.

SHEDD, Circuit Judge:

Affirmed in part, vacated in part, and remanded by published opinion. Judge SHEDD wrote the opinion, in which Judge WIDENER and Judge CACHERIS joined.

 


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This is the very rare FBI Files DVD. Thanks to the Freedom of Information Act, we are proud to present you with this amazing Data DVD which includes over 100 rare and newly declassified FBI Files on some of the most interesting people, groups and events in world history. These files can be viewed on any computer and are perfect for printing.

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RARE DVD FOOTAGE OF MANSON & THE FAMILY

This DVD includes the 1985 interview that Charles Manson did with Nuell Emmons at the Vacaville medical center. This dvd also includes several other hard to find Manson family interviews as a bonus. The DVD is over an hour long.

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This is the very rare FBI Files DVD. Thanks to the Freedom of Information Act, we are proud to present you with this amazing Data DVD which includes over 100 rare and newly declassified FBI Files on some of the most interesting people, groups and events in world history. These files can be viewed on any computer and are perfect for printing.

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Rare Charles Manson Interview

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Anyone who has seen the episode of Geraldo with Charles Manson knows that something didn't seem right. Well what Geraldo didn't count on is the fact that the prison staff had their own camera filming the entire interview! This is the uncut tape from the prison camera, see what really happened!

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Rare Charles Manson Interview

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Female Tabloid reporter Penny Daniels interviews Manson.

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Ron Reagan interviews Charles Manson

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This is the full interview between Charlie Manson and Charlie Rose.

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This is the complete uncut interview shown in Charles Manson Superstar.

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This is the full interview between Charlie Manson and Tom Snyder. It has been said that this interview was the inspiration for much of the prison interview at the end of Natural Born Killers. This is trulyu one of Manson's best interviews and a must have for any crime history collector.

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Charles Manson 1980's Interviews With Tom Snyder, Penny Daniels, Charlie Rose, Nuel Emmons, Geraldo Rivera. This DVD is approx. 4 hr 20 mins Interesting, Great Research Material.

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Unedited footage of the entire interview Leslie Van Houten gave in 1977 after she was granted a re-trial (she eventually was convicted after a third trial in 1978: 7 years to life.) conducted inside the prison. Unique material.

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Rare 1993 interview with Manson family member Patricia Krenwinkel

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This DVD contains the first 2 hours of 4 hours of raw footage of KTLA from the UCLA archives.

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This DVD contains raw footage from the CNN archives.

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This DVD includes very rare parole hearing footage from almost a decade of Charles Mansons Parole Hearings. This is truly a collector’s item for anyone interested in true crime.

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This DVD is a crazy cut up film put together in the 80s featuring a bunch of Charles Manson's rants. Also features rare Manson TV footage of the 70s trail.

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This is the 1992 Parole Hearing of Charles Manson.

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This is the 1997 Parole Hearing of Charles Manson.

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This DVD includes hours of rare and lost footage of the Manson family. On this DVD you will find an amazing collection of parole hearings, home videos, interviews, news clips and hard to find raw footage not found anywhere else!

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This DVD includes the very rare 1990 parole hearing of Manson Family killer, PATRICIA KRENWINKEL. This is truly a collector’s item for anyone interested in true

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This DVD includes the very rare 1990 parole hearing of Manson Family killer, CHARLES TEX WATSON. This is truly a collector’s item for anyone interested in true crime.

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This DVD includes the very rare 1993 parole hearing of Manson Family killer, SUSAN ATKINS. This is truly a collector’s item for anyone interested in true crime.

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This DVD includes hours of rare and lost footage from the Manson family. On this DVD you will find an amazing mix of raw footage, home videos, interviews, parole hearings and much much more!

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This DVD includes hours of rare and lost footage from the Manson family. On this DVD you will find an amazing mix of raw footage, home videos, interviews, parole hearings and much much more!

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This DVD includes hours of rare and lost footage from the Manson family. On this DVD you will find an amazing mix of raw footage, home videos, interviews, parole hearings and much much more!

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This DVD includes hours of rare and lost footage from the Manson family. On this DVD you will find an amazing mix of raw footage, home videos, interviews, parole hearings and much much more!

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This DVD includes hours of rare and lost footage from the Manson family. On this DVD you will find an amazing mix of raw footage, home videos, interviews, parole hearings and much much more!

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This DVD includes hours of rare and lost footage from the Manson family. On this DVD you will find an amazing mix of raw footage, home videos, interviews, parole hearings and much much more!

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This DVD includes hours of rare and lost footage from the Manson family. On this DVD you will find an amazing mix of raw footage, home videos, interviews, parole hearings and much much more!

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RARE INTERROGATION OF MANSON FAMILY CONFIDANT. Interrogation by Inyo Co. Sheriffs and the Dig for Bodies at Barker Ranch.

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SERIAL KILLER & CULT LEADER DVD MEGA SETS

COMPLETE SERIAL KILLER ULTIMATE DVD SET

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COMPLETE JEFFREY DAHMER DVD SET

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COMPLETE CHARLES MANSON INTERVIEW DVD SET

This 9 DVD collectors set includes: 1. THE BEST OF CHARLES MANSONS 1980 INTERVIEWS, 2. Manson Interview with GERALDO RIVERA (RARE UNCUT PRISON INTERVIEW TAKEN BY GUARDS) , 3. Manson Interview with ED SANDERS, 4 Manson Interview with PENNY DANIELS , 5. Manson Interview with RON REAGAN JR, 6. Manson Interview with CHARLIE ROSE, 7. Manson Interview with TOM SNYDER, 8. Manson Interview with BILL STOUT, and 9. The UNCUT CHARLES MANSON SUPERSTAR INTERVIEW.

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COMPLETE CHARLES (MANSON) IN CHARGE DVD SET

This 7 DVD collectors set includes: 1. Charles (Manson) In Charge Volume One, 2. Charles (Manson) In Charge Volume Two, 3. Charles (Manson) In Charge Volume Three, 4.Charles (Manson) In Charge Volume One, 6. Manson Interview with RON REAGAN JR, 5. Manson Interview with CHARLIE ROSE, 8. Manson Interview with TOM SNYDER, 9. Manson Interview with BILL STOUT, and 10. The UNCUT CHARLES MANSON SUPERSTAR INTERVIEW.

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FEATURED SERIAL KILLER ARTICLE

PEOPLE WHO HAVE SURVIVED VICIOUS SERIAL KILLERS

By Lori Bell

Most people remember the names of infamous serial killers. Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer, John Wayne Gacy --- these names and more ring unwanted through our collective psyche, their crimes too horrendous to ignore. However, very few remember the names of the victims of these depraved individuals, perhaps because most never live to tell their tale.

In some cases, though, there are those who are fortunate enough to escape the clutches of madness. Their stories serve as lessons in survival that we can all learn from, lessons that could very well have saved a life.

Maria Viricheva:

Three months pregnant and unmarried, 19 – year – old Maria Viricheva was working as a saleswoman at the time of her encounter with one of Russia’s most notorious serial killers --- Alexander Pichuskin. Known by the seemingly bizarre name “The Chessboard Killer,” this deranged individual set out to kill as many people as there are spaces on a chessboard. He later refuted this claim, confessing that had he not been caught, he would have continued killing indeterminately.

Attracted to the idea of having the power over the life or death of another person, Pichuskin explained that he felt like God when he was carrying out the murders. He would end the lives of his victims with a hammer blow to the head. Chillingly he is quoted as saying, “I killed in order to live because when you kill, you want to live.”

Maria was new at her job and had been set up with it by her boyfriend, who was also the father of her child. Earlier that day, the two had gotten into an argument,  and afterward she found herself distraught in a metro station in Moscow. Pichuskin spied Maria, and noting her obvious state of despair, struck up a conversation with her. Maria, desperate and alone, welcomed the company.

Hearing of her situation, Pichuskin offered her a chance to earn some additional money, telling her that he had stashed some stolen cameras in a well in nearby Bittsevsky Park, and that he would give her some to sell. Even though it was late in the evening, Maria not even knowing if her job would be there in the morning anyway, agreed to go with him to retrieve the cameras.

When they arrived at the spot, Pichuskin lifted the cover from the well and told her to look inside. As she did so, he quickly snatched her up and threw her in. She clung to the sides of the well to avoid falling, but Pichuskin grabbed her head and repeatedly slammed it into the side of the well. She had little choice but to let go. The last thing she heard was her killer yell, “take a bath there!” as she plummeted into the darkness.

She tumbled over 30ft. before landing knee – deep in sewage water that was rapidly flowing down a drain pipe. She was caught in the current, and only by swiftly removing her jacket and boots, did she manage to place her hands and feet on the sides of the drain and stop her further decent. Had she not done so, she would have reached the end of the drain pipe to a section that was completely filled with water and drowned.

Fortunately, she stopped herself near another well leading up from the drain pipe and managed to climb to the top, only to find that she was too weak to push the well cover open above her. Luckily, a passing woman heard her cries for help and saw the well cover raise a bit as Maria tried to pry it open, and the woman ran to alert security guards. They lifted the well cover and pulled Maria to safety.

Unbelievably, the police refused to investigate the incident and forced Maria to sign a statement saying that she had fallen down the well herself. She was only brought in to identify her attacker when he was finally apprehended under suspicion of 48 murders. Had the police done their job the first time, many lives might have been saved.

Viricheva is one three people known to have survived attacks by Pichuskin. One survivor has no recollection of the attack because of the head injury Pichuskin inflicted, while the third was a homeless boy, Mikhail Lobov, who was 14 when Pichuskin threw him down the well. He submitted written testimony to the court. He said he tried to tell police about Pichuskin but that they would not listen to a homeless boy.

Pichuskin told the court that he almost had a nervous breakdown when he saw Maria Viricheva near her apartment about six months after the attack. Pichuskin is serving the first part of his sentence, which he must spend in solitary confinement.

Whitney Bennett:

Young Whitney Bennett could not have known that leaving her bedroom window unlocked before she went to bed on the night of July 4, 1985, would lead to her being viciously attacked. This innocent mistake would lead her to a night of pure horror and a lifetime of suffering. That night Richard Ramirez, also known as The Night Stalker, crept through her bedroom window and savagely beat her with a tire iron before ransacking her room and taking all the valuables.

The only thing the young girl could be thankful for was that the first few blows quickly rendered her unconscious, though the strangulation marks which were on her neck after the attack indicated that luck was truly on her side that night. Two nights later, Ramirez perpetrated an almost identical attack against another woman, Joyce L. Nelson, in her home. This time, the attack was fatal.

The crime scene Ramirez left behind him was covered in Whitney’s blood, and his bloody shoe print was found on her comforter. The distinctive print also turned up at many other Night Stalker crime scenes. One such bloody shoe print was found on the left cheek of Joyce L. Nelson. He had also carelessly left the tire iron on her bedroom floor. As for Whitney Bennett, she was left with permanent scarring from the attack and had to undergo extensive cosmetic surgery.

It was her testimony that helped convict Ramirez of his crimes during his trial and ensured that he received the death sentence. Ramirez was on trial for 13 murders in Los Angeles County. The self – proclaimed devil worshipper from El Paso, also faced 30 other felony counts stemming from the series of nighttime attacks in 1984 and 1985. He faced a 14th murder charge in San Francisco, and an attempted murder and sexual assault charges in Orange County. He ended up dying in prison of natural causes at the age of 53 before the execution could take place.

Rhonda Williams:

After 40 years of silence, Rhonda Williams decided that enough was enough and finally worked up the courage to tell of her twisted involvement with one of Houston’s most notorious serial killers. Dean Corll, and his younger accomplice, Elmer Wayne Henley, we’re responsible for the murders of 29 young boys, all lured into Corll’s clutches for the purpose of satisfying his sadistic sexual urges.

Dean Arnold Corll exclusively targeted teenage boys. He worked from 1965 to 1968 in his family’s candy company, giving him his horrid nickname, “The Candy Man.” He lured many if his victims with free candy and also free alcohol and Marijuana.  His rampage lasted from 1970 to 1973, during which he befriended two wayward accomplices, David Brooks, and Elmer Henley.

Rhonda Williams had befriended Henley during her teenage years and thought Henley was someone she could trust. Growing up in an atmosphere of severe abuse and neglect, she was often beaten by her alcoholic father and was even raped repeatedly as a toddler.

In August 1973, she placed her trust in Henley once again as he snuck up to her bedroom window to help her escape another episode of abuse at the hands of her father. Another boy, Tim Kerley, was waiting in the car for them and the three drove away to what Williams thought was safety. Had she known Henley’s true motives, she certainly would have decided against letting him “rescue” her.

The trio arrived at Corll’s home, where they partied until they passed out. Williams woke to a scene of unimaginable horror. She and two other boys were bound hand and foot. Corll began kicking and screaming for her to wake up, then he and Henley took the other two captives to another room and lashed them both to what can only be described as “torture boards.”  Naively, she still believed that Henley would not let her be hurt, even as she heard the screams of her captive companions.

Her trust was finally broken when Henley told her that he would have to shoot her before the ordeal was over. However, something in Henley finally broke, and instead he turned the gun on Corll and shot him dead, saving the lives of all the captives.  Then Henley reached for the phone and called police.

Williams survived her night of horror thanks to the conscience of her friend, and although he was jailed for a short time she made a promise to him to remain silent about her ordeal from then on, only to speak about it publicly four decades later. Henley, still in prison for his role in luring victims to Corll, remains in contact with Williams to this day.

Teresa Thornhill :

Robert Black was a convicted child murderer and pedophile, who claimed four young victims in Scotland between the 1970s and 1990s. Teresa Thornhill was one of the few known survivors of his attacks. Black was convicted in 1994 of the murders of 11 – year – old Susan Maxwell from the Scottish Borders, five – year – old Caroline Hogg, from Edinboro,  and Sarah Harper, 10 from Morley near Leeds.

On a warm day in April 1988, Teresa, 15 at the time, was walking home when she caught the eye of Black, who was parked in a van by her house. Faking car trouble as he exited the back of his van, Black asked the young girl if she knew anything about engines. When she approached, he grabbed her and placed one hand over her mouth, pinned her arms by her sides, and tried to pull her into his van through the back doors. She screamed and bit his arm, causing him to drop her just as a friend in the neighborhood came running to help, scaring Black off. After her frightening experience she ran to her home and her parents called the police. But it was already too late --- Black had already disappeared.

Two years passed and the young girl remained traumatized by her experience, almost never going outside. She was one of the witnesses to testify against him at his trial, where he was convicted of the three murders and her kidnapping, receiving a life sentence for his crimes. While still in prison, he was convicted of killing his fourth victim, a nine – year –old girl. To this day, police are still investigating his case and suspect him of many more murders.

Black has long been the prime suspect in the disappearance of 13 – year – old, Genette Tate, who was last seen on a country lane in Aylesbeare, Devon, in 1978. No trace of the newspaper delivery girl has ever been found.

Teresa Thornhill says, “I can still see Robert Black’s face every day.”

Tali Shapiro:

Eleven – year – old, Tali Shapiro didn’t like taking the bus, so almost every day she would walk to school from her home in West Hollywood. On a September morning in 1969, the young girl’s decision to walk the short distance to her school would prove to be a costly mistake.

While walking down South Boulevard that morning, Rodney Acala approached her in his vehicle and asked her if she wanted a ride. She refused, saying that she was not allowed to talk to strangers. He assured her that he knew her family and told her that he had a beautiful picture to show her. Though wary, she approached his car. That’s the last thing she remembers from that morning. Luckily, another man saw the abduction and called the police.

Rodney Acala became known as, “The Dating Game Killer,” after appearing as a contestant on the Dating Game show during the midst of his murder spree. Posing as a professional photographer, Acala took over 1,000 disturbing photographs of women. While none of these individuals have been positively identified as a missing person or unsolved homicide victim, there may come a time when they are realized as casualties of the Dating Game Killer.

When the police arrived at his door, Acala tried to stall them by claiming that he was  in the  shower, forcing them to kick the door in. Acala escaped out the back door and the officers found young Tali on the floor of his apartment in a state of near death, with a metal bar across her neck, as if Acala had just been pinning her down when they arrived. The young girl was also found to have been sexually assaulted. She was rushed to the hospital and thankfully, survived her atrack.

Tali Shapiro was the second person to testify for jurors who were considering the death penalty for Acala, who was convicted of killing four Los Angeles County  women and a 10 – year – old Huntington Beach ballet student. Like many brave victims recounted in this article, Tali Shapiro later testified against her assailant, helping to convict him. He was sentenced to death.

Acala, who had been representing himself, asked if she remembered him apologizing to her when she testified at an earlier trial. She said she did not.  “I sincerely regret and apologize for my despicable actions that day,” was the apology he made. Shapiro did not respond.

Rose Steward:

Although Rose Steward has every justification for hating Dean Carter, in an incredible act of forgiveness, she actively campaigns to spare from the death penalty for her rape and the murders of five other people.

On March 29, 1984, Steward was woken up by an intruder holding a knife to her neck. Over the next five hours she was repeatedly raped and tortured by him, losing consciousness twice during the attack. She only managed to survive ordeal by pretending to “like” her attacker, even going so far as to kiss him, which caused him to leave without taking her life. When her nightmare was finally over, she immediately sought help from a neighbor, who contacted the police. Carter went on to rape and strangle five other women throughout California over the next 18 days, and it was Steward’s testimony in part, that helped prosecutors ensure that he received the death penalty for his crimes.

After her assault, Steward started sleeping on her living room floor. She kept a loaded gun under her pillow --- even after Carter was arrested during a traffic stop a month later with his victim’s belongings in his car.

During their first courtroom encounter --- Steward said she managed to stare down Carter and felt stronger as a result. Steward worried about how the victim’s families would regard her. She had come to know the slain women --- Jillette Lenora Mills, 25, Susan Lynn Knoll, 25, Bonnie Ann Gunthrie, 34, Janette Anne Cullins, 24, and Tok Chum Kim, 42, --- as “sisters” and saw herself as their voice.

Would their families resent her for living while their loved one’s died? Could she have prevented their murders by doing something differently? Did he kill because he realized she had tricked him and decided to leave no more witnesses? The loved ones of the other victims did not blame her. They were kind and warm.

As he now sits on death row awaiting his fate, Steward herself has actively campaigned against the death penalty, supporting what is known as California Proposition 34, a ballot to replace all death sentences with sentences of life without parole. Some of the other victim’s families are understandably shocked by her decision. This has left Steward torn between her belief that the death penalty is wrong, and her personal understanding of her fellow victim’s pain. Only time will tell if Rose Steward will be there to see Carter’s last day.

Bryan Hartnell:

While Bryan Hartnell was attending school at Pacific Union College in San Francisco in the late 1960s, he had no idea that his bright future would forever be scarred by one truly horrifying day. After driving to a scenic lake in a remote part of the city with his girlfriend, Cecilia Shephard, the couple parked their car and planned to enjoy their day in privacy. Unbeknownst to them, the unknown man who would later be dubbed the Zodiac Killer had other plans for them.

While they remained in their car, a man wearing a black hood and a shirt with cross hairs etched on the front, approached the couple and forced them out of the car at gunpoint. After forcing them to the ground, he proceeded to stab both of them repeatedly. Then he just vanished, leaving them for dead. Cecilia was later able to provide a description of the killer before she died in the hospital. Bryan however, never saw his face and thus was left with the frustration of not knowing who it was that took the life of the one he loved.

Hartnell was stabbed 8 times, his companion, Cecilia, between 10 and 20. She died a day later at the hospital. Investigators say it was one of the most brutal attacks they’ve ever seen. They believe the Zodiac used a knife so passersby wouldn’t hear the sound of gunshots. Following the attack the Zodiac Killer calmly walked away leaving intentional clues as to his identity. He wanted to make it clear there was a serial killer on the loose. The Zodiac craved attention.

Thankfully, the years that passed healed Hartnell’s wounds not only physically, but emotionally as well.  Bryan is now a probate attorney and is married with a family of his own. The Zodiac Killer remains unidentified to this day and is still one of the most enduring crime mysteries of the 20th century.

Corazon Attenza:

It was Corazon Attenza, a 23 – year – old exchange nurse from the Phillipines, who opened the door to her apartment on the night of July 13, 1966, and unknowingly allowed brutal mass murderer, Richard Speck, into her and her roommates’ lives. The first thing she noticed about him was the strong smell of alcohol. She also saw the small gun he had pulled from his black jacket. She was also the only one that survived that terrifying night.

Richard Speck committed all his murders in one day, sneaking into a housing facility for student nurses and stabbing eight of them to death. Speck’s savagery evoked world – wide horror and headlines --- and left a terrifying legacy: the growing fear that Americans weren’t save anymore, even in their own homes.

Gun in hand, Speck forced his way into the home and herded the girls into the common room. He sliced some of the bed sheets into makeshift ropes and bound them all tightly. At first, he didn’t harm the women, telling them he just wanted some money, and that he would leave them alone. After a short while, though, one by one, Speck proceeded to rape, stab and mutilate them while Corazon, wracked with fear, hid under the beds in the room. At one point, one of her friends was being assaulted on the bed directly above her.

The attacks went on for almost six hours, with Corazon not daring to even whimper the entire time. Finally, at around five in the morning, it was over. Due to Speck being highly intoxicated at the time of the attacks, he apparently forgot about her and left the apartment after he thought his work was finished. She escaped the scene of carnage through a bedroom window after he left, and screamed for help. Her cries were heard by her neighbors and her waking nightmare came to an end.

Due to the overwhelming amount of physical evidence Speck had left at the scene --- and the fact that he had an extensive criminal record already --- he was caught shortly afterward when he checked himself into a local hospital after attempting suicide. He had slashed his wrists after learning that he’d left Corazon alive, and a doctor at the hospital recognized him from newspaper reports and contacted the police. Nine months later, a jury took only 49 minutes of deliberation to sentence him to the electric chair. His sentence was later overturned by the Supreme Court in 1972 and he was given eight consecutive terms of 50 to 150 years.

On December 5, a part of the terror ended when Speck, 49, died of a heart attack in a hospital near Joliet, Illinois, where he had been held for 24 years. Cremated by the state, and never showing any remorse for his crimes, Speck took with him the horror of those crimes.

Larry Flynt:

Larry Flynt is famous as the outspoken and flamboyant publisher of Hustler magazine, and the creator of a business empire. He is also famous for nearly being assassinated by one, Joseph Paul Franklin, in an attempt that left Mr. Flynt paralyzed from the waist down, when he was hit by two bullets from Franklin’s high powered rifle.

What is not commonly known is that Mr. Flynt’s assailant was a serial killer who was tried and convicted for eight murders across the United States between 1977 and 1980, though he claimed to have killed a dozen more in an attempt to start a “race war” in the country. Franlkin, a member of the Ku Klux Klan, and a Neo – Nazi, spoke of “being at war.” Flynt was a direct contradiction to Franklin’s highly religious beliefs and his moral stance against pornography, particularly the interracial deceptions that were featured in Hustler at the time. It was on March 6, 1978, that both Mr. Flynt and his lawyer were shot by Franklin, who confessed in prison after being sentenced for another shooting in which he received the death penalty.

Though Larry Flynt, who was left in constant pain, could have understandably wished to see his assailant die, he actually lobbied for Franklin’s sentence to be commuted to life in prison due to his stance against the death penalty itself. To quote him exactly: “In all the years since the shooting, I have never come face –to – face with Franklin. I would love an hour in a room with him and a pair of wire – cutters and pliers, so I could inflict the same damage on him that he inflicted on me. But, I do not want to kill him, nor do I want to see him die …I just don’t think that the government should be in the business of killing people. And I  think punishment by putting someone in a three – by – six cell, is a lot greater than if you snuff out their life in a few seconds with a lethal injection.”

Flynt filed a motion with the American Civil Liberties  Union in an effort to have Franklin’s sentence commuted to be life behind bars. Despite Flynt’s best efforts, Joseph Franklin was executed in November 2013. Franklin made no statement before his execution, but told CNN during an interview that he was no longer racist, had found religion, and repented.

Rebecca Garde:

Rebecca Garde worked as a telemarketer in Seattle in 1982. She had just gotten off work and was tired of waiting out in the rain for her bus, so she decided to hitchhike home on a cold night in November. The man who eventually offered her a ride seemed as ordinary as the Dodge pickup he was driving, so she happily accepted his offer. Had she known that he would eventually be convicted of killing 48 women like her, she might have declined instead. She had no way of knowing that the driver was Gary Ridgway, the Green River Killer, one of the most prolific serial killers. She didn’t know the terror he had in store for her.

While riding in his vehicle, she offered him sex in exchange for $20, figuring she could use the money to buy weed when she got home. It was at this point that she began to get an odd feeling about the man she was with, so as a precaution, she asked to see his identification, which he agreed to. This put her a little more at ease --- at least he wasn’t a cop. They parked by a trailer park and the man suggested they go into the woods for some privacy.  Once they reached a spot that was relatively secluded, Gary Ridgway attacked, and tried to strangle her to death from behind. Fighting him off by pushing him into a tree, she stunned him and ran to a nearby trailer for help. Her attacker immediately fled the scene.

Due to her lifestyle and a general fear of the police, Garde waited nearly two years after her attack before she contacted the authorities, and though her forthcoming would not lead directly to his capture, it did help law enforcement build a more solid case around the most prolific killer in the United States. Ridgway picked up and killed at least 15 more women in the same area along the Pacific Highway South, where he attacked Garde. Her description of him at least gave them something to move on.

The majority of Ridgway’s victims were teenage girls who had left tough or abusive homes, turning to the streets where they supported drug habits through prostitution. In 2001, Ridgway was finally apprehended and sentenced to life in prison. At the time of their brief initial encounter, Garde said she thought Ridgway seemed odd. At 5’11”, and 150lbs, he wasn’t very imposing, though she remembers that his hands were large and his eyes small. Most of all, she said, “I remember the look in his eyes.” Rebecca Garde remains his only known surviving victim.

We could never imagine the horror that these victims felt during their ordeals but, the exhilaration of escape must have been mind boggling too. Although they are “survivors,” their turmoil continues as they struggle everyday with the memories of how close they were to becoming a statistic. Their brave efforts saved lives and calmed fears of many, and brought to light the identities of the many victims who lost their battle with evil.



 
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