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Murderabelia Murderabelia

SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE, SERIAL KILLER TRADING CARDSSERIAL KILLER TRADING CARDSSERIAL KILLER TRADING CARDS Newest Serial Killer Articles Newest Serial Killer Articles Newest Serial Killer Articles SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE


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Newest Serial Killer Articles RETURN TO TOP

Incall: The Making Of An American Serial Killer
WildBluePress
Serial Killer Reading List
Also known as Oklahoma
The Killer Castle
Interview With Cannibal Killer Issei Sagawa
Top 4 Modern Cases Of Cannibalism
Senseless Murder Of Children
The Music Of Charles Manson
Killers History Is Trying To Forget
All Those Missing People
Manson And The Process Church
Sexual Sadists
Serial Killer Good Deeds
The Minds of Serial Killers
Serial Killer Methods of Disposal
The History of Serial Killers
Serial Killer Victim of Choice
My Experience With Richard Ramirez
Serial Killer Coincidental Catchings
Speed Freak Killers
Arthur Shawcross Interview
The Hand Of Death Cult
Pleading Insanity
Brain Fingerprinting Testing
Female Serial Killers
How to Survive a Serial Killer
Sympathetic Serial Killers
Serial Killers Who Got Away
The Real and the Imagined
Serial Killers In Ohio
Occupations of Serial killers
Serial Killers And Hiding bodies
Psychological Phases of Serial Killers
Serial Killers and Astrology
Last Words From Death Row
Serial Killers And Occult Murders
Infamous Murder Houses
Early Released Serial Killers
Grisliest Axe Murderers
BTK Killer Trivia
Killers Who Changed Their Minds
From Hero To Homicide
The Last Thing You Would Expect
People Who Survived Serial Killers


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Charles ALBRIGHT
Rodney ALCALA
Howard Arthur ALLEN
Richard ANGELO
Amy ARCHER-GILLIGAN
Benjamin ATKINS
Joe BALL
Velma BARFIELD
Herb BAUMEISTER
Martha BECK
Bloody BENDERS
Robert BERDELLA
David BERKOWITZ
Kenneth BIANCHI
Richard BIEGENWALD
Jake BIRD
Arthur Gary BISHOP
Lawrence BITTAKER
Terry BLAIR
William BONIN
Angelo BUONO, Jr.
Dallen BOUNDS
Gary Ray BOWLES
Briley BROTHERS
Jerry BRUDOS
Judy BUENOANO
Carol M. BUNDY
Ted BUNDY
Ricardo CAPUTO
Harvey CARIGNAN
David CARPENTER
Richard CHASE
Thor Nis CHRISTIANSEN
Joseph CHRISTOPHER
Douglas CLARK
Cynthia COFFMAN
Alton COLEMAN
John Norman COLLINS
Daniel CONAHAN
Rory Enrique CONDE
Ray and Faye COPELAND
Dean CORLL
Juan CORONA
Tony COSTA
Richard COTTINGHAM
Juan COVINGTON
Andre CRAWFORD
Charles CULLEN
Jeffrey DAHMER
Thomas DILLON
Westley Allan DODD
Ronald DOMINIQUE
Nannie DOSS
Brian DUGAN
Joseph E. DUNCAN III
Paul DUROUSSEAU
Edward EDWARDS
Mack Ray EDWARDS
Walter E. ELLIS
Scott ERSKINE
Donald Leroy EVANS
Gary EVANS
Richard EVONITZ
Larry EYLER
Raymond FERNANDEZ
Albert FISH
Wayne Adam FORD
Bobby Jack FOWLER
Kendall FRANCOIS
Joseph Paul FRANKLIN
John Wayne GACY
Gerald GALLEGO
Carlton GARY
Donald Henry Peewee GASKINS
Alfred GAYNOR
Ed GEIN
Janie Lou GIBBS
Bertha GIFFORD
Kristen GILBERT
Sean Vincent GILLIS
Lorenzo GILYARD
Harvey GLATMAN
Billy GLAZE
Billy GOHL
Mark GOUDEAU
David Alan GORE
Dana Sue GRAY
Vaughn GREENWOOD
Samuel GREEN
Belle GUNNESS
Anna Marie HAHN
William HANCE
Robert HANSEN
Donald HARVEY
Charles Ray HATCHER
Dale HAUSNER
Linda HAZZARD
William HEIRENS
Elmer Wayne HENLEY
Loren HERZOG
Johann Otto HOCH
Dr. H. H. HOLMES
Waneta HOYT
Michael HUGHES
Leslie IRVIN
Phillip Carl JABLONSKI
Keith Hunter JESPERSON
Martha Ann JOHNSON
Milton JOHNSON
Vincent JOHNSON
Genene JONES
Jim JONES
John JOUBERT
Joseph KALLINGER
Patrick KEARNEY
Edmund KEMPER
Israel KEYES
Scott Lee KIMBALL
Roger KIBBE
Tillie KLIMEK
Paul John KNOWLES
Anthony KIRKLAND
Randy Steven KRAFT
Timothy KRAJCIR
Peter KUDZINOWSKI
Richard KUKLINSKI
Leonard LAKE
Delphine LALAURIE
Derrick Todd LEE
Bobbie Joe LONG
Michael Lee LOCKHART
Henry Lee LUCAS
Orville Lynn MAJORS
Richard Laurence MARQUETTE
Lee Roy MARTIN
Rhonda Belle MARTIN
David MASON
David Edward MAUST
Kenneth MCDUFF
David MEIRHOFER
Stephen MORIN
Frederick MORS
John Allen MUHAMMAD
Herbert MULLIN
Joseph NASO
Robert NIXON
Earle NELSON
Charles NG
Marie NOE
Roy NORRIS
Gordon NORTHCOTT
Carl PANZRAM
Gerald PARKER
Louise PEETE
Steven Brian PENNELL
Christopher PETERSON
Craig PRICE
Harry POWERS
Cleophus PRINCE JR.
Marion Albert PRUETT
Dorothea PUENTE
Dennis RADER
Richard RAMIREZ
Melvin REES
Paul Dennis REID
Ángel Maturino RESÉNDIZ
Gary RIDGWAY
Joel RIFKIN
Harvey Miguel ROBINSON
John Edward ROBINSON
Dayton Leroy ROGERS
Glen Edward ROGERS
Danny ROLLING
Michael Bruce ROSS
Robert ROZIER
Kimberly Clark SAENZ
Efren SALDIVAR
Altemio SANCHEZ
Gerard John SCHAEFER
Charles SCHMID
Heriberto SEDA
Tommy Lynn SELLS
Arthur SHAWCROSS
Lydia SHERMAN
Wesley SHERMANTINE
Anthony Allen SHORE
Robert SHULMAN
Daniel Lee SIEBERT
Robert Joseph SILVERIA, Jr.
Lemuel SMITH
Morris SOLOMON Jr.
Anthony SOWELL
Timothy Wilson SPENCER
Jack Owen SPILLMAN
Edward SPREITZER
Gerald STANO
Cary STAYNER
Paul Michael STEPHANI
William SUFF
Michael SWANGO
James SWANN
Joseph TABORSKY
John Floyd THOMAS, Jr.
Ottis TOOLE
Jane TOPPAN
Maury TRAVIS
Chester TURNER
Henry Louis WALLACE
Faryion WARDRIP
Karl F. WARNER
Coral Eugene WATTS
Nathaniel WHITE
Christopher WILDER
Scott WILLIAMS
Wayne WILLIAMS
Shirley WINTERS
Aileen WUORNOS
Robert LEE YATES
Robert ZARINSKY


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Christine ADEWUNMI
Sara Maria ALDRETE
Nasra Yussef Mohammed AL-ENEZI
Patricia Taylor ALLANSON
Beverley Gail ALLITT
Angelica Salazar ALVAREZ
Maria Isabella AMAYA
Lyda Catherine AMBROSE
Michele Kristen ANDERSON
Amy ARCHER-GILLIGAN
Gertraud ARZBERGER
Francisca BALLESTEROS
Margie Velma BARFIELD
Juana BARRAZA
Martha BECK
Marie Alexandrine BECKER
Amanda BENNETT
Marie BESNARD
Amy BISHOP
Elfriede BLAUENSTEINER
Cecile BOMBEEK
Lizzie Andrew BORDEN
Kathy BOUDIN
The Marquise de BRINVILLIERS
Mary Ann BRITLAND
Mary Ann BROUGH
Debra Denise BROWN
Denise Dianna BUCHANAN
Judias Anna BUENOANO
Dora Luz BUENROSTRO
Erin Michelle CAFFEY
Angela CAMACHO
Martha "Patty" CANNON
Socorro CARO
Leonarda CIANCIULLI
Cynthia Lynn COFFMAN
Patricia COLUMBO
Faye Della COPELAND
Tammy L. CORBETT
Natasha Wallen CORNET
Carol CORONADO
Mary Ann COTTON
Mary Frances CREIGHTON
Anna CUNNINGHAM
Rebecca DAVID
Williamina DEAN
Daisy Louisa DE MELKER
Joanna DENNEHY
Catherine DESHAYES
Phoolan DEVI
Edlira DOBRUSHI
Nannie DOSS
Amelia Elizabeth DYER
Gilberta ESTRADA
Ellen ETHERIDGE
Susan Dianne EUBANKS
Christine FALLING
Timea FALUDI
Nancy FARRER
Júlia FAZEKAS
Constance M. FISHER
Lulonda Lynn FLETT
Kathleen Megan FOLBIGG
Priscilla Joyce FORD
Antoinette FRANK
Ethel Mae FRANKEN
Irina Viktorovna GAIDAMACHUK
Seema Mohan GAVIT
Tillie KLIMEK
Janie Lou GIBBS
Bertha GIFFORD
Kristen GILBERT
Delfina and Maria de Jesus GONZALEZ
Gesche Margarethe GOTTFRIED
Gwendolyn Gail GRAHAM
Dana Sue GRAY
Josephine Victoria GRAY
Holly Ann GRIGSBY
Caroline GRILLS
Belle Sorenson GUNNESS Anna Marie HAHN
Tiffany HALL
Amanda HAMM
Lashaun Ternice HARRIS
Tonya Lynn HAWKS
Masumi HAYASHI
Susan Diane HENDRICKS
Olga HEPNAROVA
Khoua HER
Sabine HILSCHENZ
Myra HINDLEY
Megan K. HOGG
Mary Ann HOLDER
Karla Leanne HOMOLKA
Waneta Ethel HOYT
Megan HUNTSMAN
Miyuki ISHIKAWA
Banita M. JACKS
Mary Jane JACKSON
Vickie Dawn JACKSON
Helene JEGADO
Angela Jane JOHNSON
Martha Ann JOHNSON
Genene Anne JONES
Leisa JONES
Claudette Regina KIBBLE
Kanae KIJIMA
Sante KIMES
Judy D. KIRBY
Tillie KLIMEK
Marie Delphine LaLAURIE
Marilyn LEMAK
Diana LUMBRERA
Anjette Donovan LYLES
Sarah Jane MAKIN
Yiya MURANO
Sarah MALCOLM
Christine MALEVRE
MALLIKA
Martha MAREK
Enriqueta MARTI RIPOLLES
Rhonda Bell MARTIN
Melissa MARVIN
Dorothy Jean MATAJKE
G.R. McANICH
Kimberly Lagayle McCARTHY
Eleazar Paula MENDEZ
Silvia MERAZ MORENO
Blanche Taylor MOORE
Hiroko NAGATA
Kayoko NAKAI
Martha NEEDLE
Frances Elaine NEWTON
Sandi Dawn NIEVES
Marie NOE
Marianne NOLLE
Elsie NOLLEN
Aino NYKOPP-KOSKI
Diane ODELL
Junko OGATA
Emma OLIVER
Dagmar OVERBYE
Christine Marie PAOLILLA
Louise PEETE
Madame POPOVA
Dorothea Helen PUENTE
Mahin QADIRI
Sabine RADMACHER
Florence RANSOM
Florence REY
Theresa RIGGI
Andrea ROBERTS
Guadalupe RONQUILLO-OVALLE
Robin Lee ROW
Kimberly Clark SAENZ
Darya Nikolajevna SALTYKOVA
Jennifer SAN MARCO
Felicitas SANCHEZ AGUILLON
Gail SAVAGE
Kathryn Dempsey SCHOCH
Antoinette SCIERI
Lydia SHERMAN
Renuka Kiran SHINDE
Sanna SILLANPAA
Melanie Jane SMITH
Magdalena SOLIS
Della SORENSON
Diane Louise SPENCER
Miyoko SUMIDA
Maria Catherina SWANENBURG
Mary SYEBOLDT
Jessica TATA
Bobbie Sue TERRELL
Tonya THOMAS
Coleen M. THOMPSON
Marybeth TINNING
Jane TOPPAN
Gail TRAIT
Lyda TRUEBLOOD
Debra Sue TUGGLE
Lise Jane TURNER
Sophie Charlotte Elisabeth URSINUS
Le Thanh VAN
Angelica VAZQUEZ
Maria VELTEN
Neah VERMA
Louise VERMILYEA
Waltraud WAGNER
Annie WALTERS
Natashay Yvonne WARD
Margaret WATERS
Jeanne WEBER
Rosemary Pauline WEST
Sarah Jane WHITELING
Elisabeth WIESE
Dorothy WILLIAMS
Manling Tsang WILLIAMS
Stella Elizabeth WILLIAMSON
Catherine WILSON
Mary Elizabeth WILSON
Shirley WINTERS
Martha WISE
Catherine May WOOD
Martha WOODS
Aileen Carol WUORNOS
Barbara-Anne WYRZYKOWSKI
Tooba Mohammad YAHYA
Andrea Pia YATES
Maggie YOUNG
Lin YURU
Anna Margaretha ZWANZIGER



SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM AFGHANISTAN

Robert BALES
Abul DJABAR
Reza KHAN
Abdullah SHAH


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

John Earl BAUGHMAN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ARGENTINA

John Earl BAUGHMAN
Francisco Antonio LAUREANA
Carlos Eduardo ROBLEDO PUCH
Cayetano SANTOS GODINO

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM AUSTRALIA

Allan BAKER
Malcolm George BAKER
David John BIRNIE
Samuel Leonard BOYD
Gregory John BRAZEL
Martin John BRYANT
John Justin BUNTING
Eric Edgar COOKE
John Leslie COOMBES
Donato Anthony CORBO
Ashley Mervyn COULSTON
Douglas John Edwin CRABBE
Elmer Kyle CRAWFORD
Lloyd Maurice CROSBIE
Kevin CRUMP
Roger Kingsley DEAN
Frederick Bailey DEEMING
Paul Charles DENYER
Peter Norris DUPAS
Raymond EDMUNDS
Paul Anthony EVERS
Christopher Dale FLANNERY
Colin Richard FORMAN
Wade FRANKUM
Leonard John FRASER
John Wayne GLOVER
Paul Steven HAIGH
Matthew James HARRIS
Mark JEFFERIES
Edward "Ned" KELLY
Julian KNIGHT
Edward Joseph LEONSKI
Robert Paul LONG
John LYNCH
William MacDONALD
John MAKIN
Archibald Beattie McCAFFERTY
Ivan Robert Marko MILAT
James William MILLER
William Patrick MITCHELL
Alexander PEARCE
Derek Ernest PERCY
Robin REID
John ROWLES
Ronald Joseph RYAN
Joseph SCHWAB
John Myles SHARPE
Peter SHOOBRIDGE
George David SILVA
Arnold Karl SODEMAN
Mark Mala VALERA
Frank VITKOVIC
James Spyridon VLASSAKIS
Bevan Spencer VON EINEM
Robert Joe WAGNER
Carl Anthony WILLIAMS
Christopher Robin WORRELL
Huan Yun XIANG

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM AUSTRIA

Franz FUCHS
Josef GAUTSCH
Max GUFLER
Udo PROKSCH
Hugo SCHENK
Jack UNTERWEGER
Felix ZEHETNER

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM AZERBAIJAN

Farda GADIROV
Haji MAMMADOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM THE BAHAMAS

Cyril DARVILLE
Cordell FARRINGTON
Michiah SHOBEK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BANGLADESH

Munir HUSSAIN
Ershad SIKDER


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BELARUS

Gennady MIKHASEVICH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BELGIUM

Nordine AMRANI
Michel BELLEN
Marc DUTROUX
Michel FOURNIRET
Kim de GELDER
Ronald Alain JANSSEN
Remy LECRENIER
Andras PANDY
Ozan SELAMET
Michel VAN WIJNENDAELE


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BOLIVIA

Triston Jay AMERO

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA

Esad LANDZO


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM BRAZIL

Andre Luis CASSIMIRO
Francisco Das CHAGAS Rodrigues B.
Marcelo COSTA DE ANDRADE
Genildo FERREIRA do Franca
Anisio FERREIRA de Sousa
Tiago Henrique GOMES DA ROCHA
Sailson Jose das GRACAS
Luiz Miguel Miltao GUERREIRO
Edson Isidoro GUIMARAES
Wellington Menezes de OLIVEIRA
Francisco de Assis PEREIRA
Duilio PESSOTO
Gustavo PISSARDO
Gerd WENZINGER
Marcelo Kenji YOSHINO


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CANADA

Paul Kenneth BERNARDO
Wayne Clifford BODEN
Vernon Elwood BOOHER
Marc CHAHAL
Sandy CHARLES
William Dean CHRISTENSON
John Etter CLARK
Camille CLEROUX
Robert Raymond COOK
Scott William COX
John Martin CRAWFORD
Sukhwinder Singh DHILLON
Leopold DION
Valery I. FABRIKANT
William Patrick FYFE
Kimveer GILL
David John GORTON
Matthew de GROOD
Joseph Albert GUAY
Victor Ernest HOFFMAN
Russell Maurice JOHNSON
Gilbert Paul JORDAN
Pierre LEBRUN
Cody Alan LEGEBOKOFF
Allan Joseph LEGERE
Marc LEPINE
Vince Weiguang LI
Christian Herbert MAGEE
Luka Rocco MAGNOTTA
Michael Wayne McGRAY
Herman Webster MUDGETT
Dale Merle NELSON
Earle Leonard NELSON
Clifford Robert OLSON
Robert William PICKTON
Swift RUNNER
David William SHEARING
Charles T. SINCLAIR
Michael Peter SLOBODIAN
Jeremy Allan STEINKE
Roch THERIAULT
Mark Andrew TWITCHELL
Roger WARREN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CHILE

Julio PEREZ SILVA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CHINA

Bai BAOSHAN
Hu DAOPING
Chen FUZHAO
Duan GUOCHENG
Feng GUOHUI
Gao HAIPING
Fu HEGONG
Liu HONGWEN
Huang HU
Wu HUANMING
Ma JIAJUE
Fang JIANTANG
Yang JIAQIN
Liang JIQIAN
Chan KA-CHUN
Zhao LIANRONG
Zhang LISONG
Tian MINGJIAN
Liu MINGWU
Yang MINGXIN
Zheng MINSHENG
Bai NINGYANG
Chen PEIQUAN
Zhang PILIN
Li PINGPING
Jin RUCHAO
Hua RUIZHUO
Gong RUNBO
Changyin & Changping SHEN
Chen SHUIZONG
Wang SHUJIN
Zhou WEN
Li WENXIAN
Huang WENYI
Dong WENYU
Jin XIANGWU
Qiu XINGHUA
Yang XINHAI
Wang XIWEN
Jian XUELIANG
Wu YANDONG
Yan YANMING
Kuang YINGXUE
Huang YONG
Ma YONG
Chen YONGFENG
Zhang YONGMING
Zhou YOUPING
Shi YUEJUN
Zhang YUNLIANG
Liu ZHANJIN
Cheng ZHENGPING
Xiong ZHENLIN
Yang ZHIYA
Guo ZHONGMIN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM COLOMBIA

Daniel CAMARGO BARBOSA
Campo Elias DELGADO MORALES
Luis Alfredo GARAVITO
Pedro Alonso LOPEZ
Juan de Jesus Lozano VELASQUEZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CONGO

William UNEK


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CROATIA

Vinko PALIC
Vinko PINTARIK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM CZECH REPUBLIC

Martin LECIAN
Vaclav MRAZEK
Hubert PILCIK
Jozef SLOVAK
Jack UNTERWEGER
Petr ZELENKA


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ECUADOR

Daniel CAMARGO BARBOSA
Gilberto Antonio CHAMBA
Luis Alfredo GARAVITO
Pedro Alonso LOPEZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM EGYPT

Saber & Mahmoud ABU-EL-ULLA
Suleiman KHATER
Ramadan Abdel Rehim MANSOUR


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ESTONIA

Aleksandr RUBEL

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM FINLAND

Pekka-Eric AUVINEN
Jarno Sebastian ELG
Petri Erkki Tapio GERDT
Matti Juhani SAARI
Ibrahim SHKUPOLLI
Antti Olavi TASKINEN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM FRANCE

Patrice ALEGRE
Jean-Pierre ALLAIN
Marcel Henri BARBEAULT
Eric BOREL
Pierre CHANAL
Nicolas CLAUX
Manuel DELGADO VILLEGAS
Hamida DJANDOUBI
Christian DORNIER
Martin DUMOLLARD
Richard DURN
Volker ECKERT
Gunter Hermann EWEN
Serge FORTIN
Michel FOURNIRET
Guy GEORGES
Roger GIRERD
Francis HEAULME
David HOTYAT
Henry Desire LANDRU
Claude LASTENNET
Lucien LEGER
Emile LOUIS
Guy MARTEL
Mohammed MERAH
Thierry PAULIN
Michel PEIRY
Bernard PESQUET
Dr. Marcel PETIOT
Joseph PHILIPPE
Sid Ahmed REZALA
Jean-Claude ROMAND
Jean-Pierre ROUX-DURRAFOURT
Issei SAGAWA
Georges-Alexandre SARRET
Albert SOLEILLAND
Roberto SUCCO
Jean-Baptiste TROPPMANN
Jules-Alexandre UGHETTO
Joseph VACHER
Denis WAXIN
Eugen WEIDMANN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GEORGIA

Artur VAGANOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GERMANY

Fritz Heinrich ANGERSTEIN
Jurgen BARTSCH
Ernst-Dieter BECK
Eugen BERWALD
Andreas BICHEL
Werner BOOST
Karel CHARVA
Olaf DATER
Karl DENKE
Volker ECKERT
Peter GOEBBELS
Klaus GOSSMAN
Georg Karl GROSSMANN
Friedrich HAARMANN
Kuno HOFMANN
Fritz HONKA
Alexander KEITH Jr.
Gundolf KOHLER
Tim KRETSCHMER
Joachim Georg KROLL
Peter KURTEN
Stephan LETTER
Bruno LUDKE
David Edward MAUST
Alwin NEUMANN
Rudolf PLEIL
Norbert Hans POEHLKE
Heinrich POMMERENCKE
Thomas RATH
Thomas RUNG
Wolfgang SCHMIDT
SCHULTZ
Friedrich SCHUMANN
Adolf Gustav SEEFELD
Mark Alan SMITH
Helmut WEIDENBROEKER
Gerd WENZINGER
Manfred WITTMAN
Michael WOLTER

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GHANA

Charles Ebo QUANSAH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GREECE

Antonis DAGLIS
Peter KULAXIDES
Kyriakos PAPAXRONIS
Theofilos SECHIDIS
Dimitris VAKRINOS

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GUATEMALA

Jose Maria Miculax BUX
Manuel MARTINEZ CORONADO

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM GUYANA

Oral HENDRICKS
James Warren JONES

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM HONG KONG

Lee Chi HANG
Lam KOR-WAN
Lam KWOK-WAI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM HUNGARY

Bela KISS
Sylvestre MATUSCHKA
Ramil SAFAROV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM INDIA

Shantaram Kanhoji JAGTAP
M JAISHANKAR
Rajendra JAKKAL
K P JAYANANDAN
Chandrakant JHA
Surender KOLI
Mohan KUMAR
R. KUPPUSAMY
Mahanand NAIK
Motta NAVAS
Moninder Singh PANDHER
Raman RAGHAV
Dilip RATHIA
Mahavir RAZAK
Umesh REDDY
Sadashiv SAHU
Munawar Harun SHAH
Auto SHANKAR
Kampatimar SHANKARIYA
Devendra SHARMA
Darbara SINGH
Major SINGH
Charles SOBHRAJ
Dilip Dhyanoba SUTAR
Ravindra Kumar VERMA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM INDONESIA

BAEKUNI
Verry Idham HENYANSYAH
Ahmad SURADJI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM IRAN

Mohammed BIJEH
Ali Asghar BORUJERDI
Saeed HANAEI
Ali Reza Khoshruy Kuran KORDIYEH
Yaghoub Ali MIRSHEKARI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM IRAQ

Ali Asghar BORUJERDI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM IRELAND

Henry McCABE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ISRAEL

Nicolai BONNER
Mohammed HALABI
Ami POPPER
Asher WEISGAN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ITALY

Marco BERGAMO
Donato BILANCIA
Manuel DELGADO VILLEGAS
Bartolomeo GAGLIANO
Maurizio GIUGLIANO
Antonio MANTOVANI
Andrea MATTEUCCI
Maurizio MINGHELLA
Nicola SAPONE
Cesare SERVIATTI
Roberto SUCCO
Vincenzo VERZENI
Andrea VOLPE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM JAMAICA

Lewis HUTCHINSON

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM JAPAN

Sataro FUKIAGE
Hiroaki HIDAKA
Yasutoshi KAMATA
Kiyotaka KATSUTA
Yoshio KODAIRA
Genzo KURITA
Hiroshi MAEUE
Futoshi MATSUNAGA
Tsutomu MIYAZAKI
Kiyoshi OKUBO
Robert Dale SEGEE
Furuya SOKICHI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM JORDAN

Ahmad Musa DAKAMSEH
Saeed QASHASH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM KAZAKHSTAN

Vladislav CHELAKH
Nikolai DZHUMAGALIEV
Oleg MURAYENKO
Abduseit ORMANOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM KENYA

Francis NG'ANG'A

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM KOSOVO

Frank J. RONGHI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM KUWAIT

Hasan AKBAR

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM LATVIA

Yuri CHUBAROV
Alexander KORYAKOV
Kaspars PETROVS

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM LESOTHO

Makhele SCOTT

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM LITHUANIA

Leonardas ZAVISTONOVICIUS

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MACEDONIA

Vlado TANESKI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MALAWI

Nasser KARA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MALAYSIA

Mat Taram bin SA'AL
Charles SOBHRAJ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MALTA

Silvio MANGION

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MEXICO

Jose Luis CALVA ZEPEDA
Ricardo Silvio CAPUTO
Adolfo de Jesus CONSTANZO
Gabriel Arturo GARZA HOTH
Cesar Armando LIBRADO LEGORRETA


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM MOROCCO

Abdelali AMER
Abdelaali HADI
Hadj Mohammed MESFEWI
Hicham RAOUI

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NAMIBIA

Sylvester & Gavin BEUKES

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NEPAL

Charles SOBHRAJ
Basudev THAPA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NETHERLANDS

Jacobus Dirk (Koos) HERTOGS
Ondrej RIGO
John SWEENEY
Willem VAN EIJK
Hans VAN ZON

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NEW ZEALAND

Wiremu Kingi MAKETU
Raymond Wahia RATIMA
Arthur ROTTMAN
James STACK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NIGERIA

Kazeem ADEYEMO

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM NORWAY

Anders Behring BREIVIK
Arnfinn NESSET
Thomas QUICK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM PAKISTAN

Arif and Farman ALI
Javed IQBAL
Amir QAYYUM
Abdul RAZZAQ
Muhammad YOUSAF

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM PALESTINE

Baruch Kappel GOLDSTEIN

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM PERU

Pedro Alonso LOPEZ
Pedro Pablo NAKADA LUDENA


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM POLAND

Joachim KNYCHALA
Julian KOLTUN
Karol KOT
Zdzislaw MARCHWICKI
Wladyslaw MAZURKIEWICZ
Stanislaw MODZELEWSKI
Andrzej NOWOCIEN


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM PORTUGAL

Antonio Luis COSTA

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ROMANIA

Ion RIMARU
TCAIUC
Romulus VERES

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM RUSSIA

Artem ANOUFRIEV
Valery ASRATYAN
Anatoly BIRYUKOV
Ahmed BRAGIMOV
Vladimir BRATISLAV
Roman BURTSEV
Alexander BYCHKOV
Andrei Romanovich CHIKATILO
Sergei Aleksandrovich GOLOVKIN
Alexander GREB
Vasili KOMAROFF
Alexander KOMIN
Valery KOPYLOV
Vasiliy KULIK
Ilshyat KUZIKOV
Alexander KUZMINYKH
Sergey MARTYNOV
Andrei MASLICH
Vladimir MIRGOROD
Vladimir MUKHANKIN
Oleg NAUMOV
Dr. Maxim Vladimirovich PETROV
Alexander Yuryevich PICHUSHKIN
Mikhail Viktorovich POPKOV
Vladmir ROMANOV
Sergei RYAKHOVSKY
Artur RYNO
Anatoly Yelemianovich SLIVKO
Alexander SPESIVTSEV
Nicholas TRAPISHKIN
Dmitry VORONENKO
Vadim YERSHOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SAUDI ARABIA

Faisal bin MUSAID

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SERBIA

Ljubisa BOGDANOVIC
Silvo PLUT
Nikola RADOSAVLJEVIC


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SLOVAKIA

Matej CURKO
Ondrej RIGO
Jozef SLOVAK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SLOVENIA

Silvo PLUT
Metod TROBEC

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SOUTH AFRICA

Pierre Corneille Faculys BASSON
Dr. Wouter BASSON
Elias CHAUKE
Johannes Christiaan DE JAGER
Sipho DUBE
Sibusiso DUMA
Casper KRUGER
Gamal Salie LINEVELDT
Maoupa Cedrid MAAKE
Bulelani MABHAYI
Fanuel MAKAMU
Jimmy MAKETTA
Johannes MASHIANE
Lazarus Tshidiso MAZINGANE
Samuel Bongani MFEKA
Mbulaheni David MMBENGWA
Madumetsa Jack MOGALE
Zola Jackson MQOMBOYI
Elifasi MSOMI
Mtimane MSUNDWANA
Themba MTHOMBENI
Mukosi Freddy MULAUDZI
Nicholas Lungisa NCAMA
Velaphi NDLANGAMANDLA
David RANDITSHENI
Norman Afzal SIMONS
Moses SITHOLE
Barend Hendrik STRYDOM
Themba Anton SUKUDE
Thozamile TAKI
Sipho Agmatir THWALA
Gert VAN ROOYEN
Louis VAN SCHOOR
Stewart WILKEN
Elias XITAVHUDZI
Christopher M. ZIKODE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SOUTH KOREA

KANG Ho-sun
Jeong NAM-KYU
Yoo YOUNG-CHUL

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SPAIN

Manuel BLANCO ROMASANTA
Gilberto Antonio CHAMBA
Manuel DELGADO VILLEGAS
Volker ECKERT
Raymond Martinez FERNANDEZ
Francisco GARCIA ESCALERO
Jose Antonio RODRIGUEZ VEGA
Joan VILA DILME

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SUDAN

Abbas Baqir ABBAS

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SWAZILAND

David Thabo SIMELANE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SWEDEN

John Ingvar LOVGREN
Jon Andreas NODTVEIDT
Thomas QUICK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SWITZERLAND

Roger ANDERMATT
Michel PEIRY
Hermann SCHWARZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM SYRIA

Ali MARJEK

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM TAIWAN

Cheng CHIEH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM THAILAND

Somkhid PHUMPHUANG
John Martin SCRIPPS
Charles SOBHRAJ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM TURKEY

Adnan COLAK
Ogdur DENGIZ
Ali KAYA
Yavuz YAPICIOGLU

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UGANDA

Joseph KIBWETEERE

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UKRAINE

Vladimir KONDRATENKO
Anatoly ONOPRIENKO
Viktor SAYENKO
Igor SUPRUNYUCK
Serhiy TKACH
Vladislav VOLKOVICH

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

Junaid Nawaz Lal NAWAZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UNITED KINGDOM

Dr. John Bodkin ADAMS
Stephen AKINMURELE
Robert BLACK
Ian BRADY
William BURKE
George CHAPMAN
John CHILDS
John Reginald CHRISTIE
Thomas Neill CREAM
Kenneth ERSKINE
Roy FONTAINE
Daniel GONZALEZ
Steven John GRIEVESON
Stephen Shaun GRIFFITHS
Allan GRIMSON
John George HAIGH
Archibald Thompson HALL
Anthony John HARDY
Trevor Joseph HARDY
William HARE
Neville George Clevely HEATH
Mark HOBSON
Colin IRELAND
Ian KAY
Kieron KELLY
Bruce George Peter LEE
Wendell Willis LIGHTBOURNE
Robin Stanislaw LIGUS
Michael LUPO
Patrick David MacKAY
Peter Thomas Anthony MANUEL
Robert John MAUDSLEY
Peter MOORE
Raymond Leslie MORRIS
David MULCAHY
Donald NEILSON
Dennis Andrew NILSEN
Colin Campbell NORRIS
Dr. William PALMER
Michael Robert RYAN
Dr. Harold Frederick SHIPMAN
Angus Robertson SINCLAIR
George Joseph SMITH
John Thomas STRAFFEN
Peter William SUTCLIFFE
Peter Britton TOBIN
Frederick Walter Stephen WEST
Steven Gerald James WRIGHT
Graham Frederick YOUNG


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM UZBEKISTAN

Abduseit ORMANOV

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM VENEZUELA

Dorancel VARGAS GOMEZ

LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM VIETNAM

Duong VAN MOM


LIST OF MALE MURDERERS FROM ZIMBABWE

Dr. Richard Gladwell McGOWN

SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

MASS MURDERERS AND SPREE KILLERS FROM AROUND THE WORLD

Ricky ABEYTA
Saber & Mahmoud Farahat ABU EL-ULLA
Gameel AL-BATOUTI
Aaron ALEXIS
Jean-Pierre ALLAIN
Juan Manuel ALVAREZ
Nordine AMRANI
Stephen Lawrence ANDERSON
Fritz Heinrich ANGERSTEIN
Abbas Baqir ABBAS
Mauro ANTONELLO
Siavosh Rahmani AQDAM
Shoko ASAHARA
Larry Gene ASHBROOK
Pekka-Eric AUVINEN
Jorjik AVANESIAN
Ronald Baquiran BAE
Robert BALES
Asanda BANINZI
George Emil BANKS
Mark Orrin BARTON
Clarence V. BERTUCCI
Sylvester & Gavin BEUKES
Ljubisa BOGDANOVIC
William Ray BONNER
Eric BOREL
Ahmed BRAGIMOV
Anders Behring BREIVIK
Carl Robert BROWN
Martin John BRYANT
Woo BUM-KON
David Augustus BURKE
Julian CARLTON
Dragan CEDIC
Marc CHAHAL
Robert CHARLES
Vladislav CHELAKH
Seung-Hui CHO
Yuri CHUBAROV
John Etter CLARK
Abel CLEMMONS
Darnell COLLINS
Melvin COLLINS
Marciano CONTATOE
Kim DAE-HAN
Ahmad Musa DAKAMSEH
Mesac DAMAS
Rodrick Shonte DANTZLER
Roger Kingsley DEAN
Campo Elias DELGADO MORALES
DIPENDRA Bir Bikram Shah
Christian DORNIER
Jessie DOTSON
Thomas G. DOTY
Richard DURN

MORE COMING SOON


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

MOBSTERS, HITMEN AND MORE

ORGANIZED CRIME
ABE RELES
AL CAPONE
ALBERT TANNENBAUM
ALEXANDER SOLONIK
ANTHONY SENTER
ANTHONY SPILOTRO
ANGELO LA BARBERA
BERNARDO PROVENZANO
CALOGERO VIZZINI
CHARLES HARRELSON
CHARLES NICOLETTI
CHRIS ROSENBERG
CORNELIUS HUGHES
GAETANO BADALAMENTI
GIUSEPPE GENCO RUSSO
GLENNON ENGLEMAN
HARRY MAIONE
FRANK ABBANDANDO
FRANK ABBANDANDO JR
FRANK NITTI
FRANK SHEERAN
FELIX ALDERISIO
HARRY STRAUSS
JACK MCGURN
JAMES BURKE
JOHN GOTTI
JOSEPH TESTA
LEOLUCA BAGARELLA
LOUIS CAPONE
LUCKY LUCIANO
MATTEO MESSINA DENARO
MICHELE GRECO
MICHELE NAVARRA
RICHARD KUKLINSKI
ROY DEMEO
SALVATORE GRECO
SALVATORE LO PICCOLO
SALVATORE INZERILLO
SALVATORE RIINA
SAMMY GRAVANO
STEFANO BONTADE
STEFANO MAGADDINO
SEYMOUR MAGOON
THOMAS DESIMONE
TOMMASO BUSCETTA
VERNON C. MILLER
VITO CASCIO FERRO


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

KILLERS FROM MOVIES, BOOKS, GAMES, COMICS AND MORE

MOVIES AND MURDER
ANGELA
ANGELA BAKER
ALEX DELARGE
ANNIE WILKES
BABY "ANGEL" FIREFLY
BABY JANE HUDSON
BARABAS THE JEW
BEN WILLIS (THE FISHERMAN)
BILLY CHAPMAN
BROTHER PAPA
BUFFALO BILL
CAPTAIN SPAULDING
CANDYMAN
THE CENOBITES
CHOP TOP (ROBERT SAWYER)
CHUCKY (CHARLES LEE RAY)
CLETUS KASADY
CORINTHIAN
DEXTER MORGAN
DOCTOR EVAN RENDELL
DOCTOR MABUSE
DOCTOR SATAN
DR. ALAN FEINSTONE
DR. PHILIP CHANNARD
DRAYTON SAWYER
EDGLER VESS
EDWARD LIONHEART
EDWARD SAWYER
FARMER VINCENT SMITH
FRANCIS DOLARHYDE
FRANK BOOTH
FREDDY KRUEGER
GEORGE HARVEY
GEORGES QUERELLE
GRANDPA HUGO
DR HANNIBAL LECTER
GHOSTFACE KILLER
HERBERT WEST
HORACE PINKER
JASON VOORHEES
JIGSAW KILLER
JOHN DOE
JOHN RYDER
JUPITERS CLAN
LAWRENCE WARGRAVE
LEATHERFACE
LORD VOLDEMORT
LUDA MAY HEWITT
MAX CADY
MICHAEL MYERS
MICKEY & MALLORY KNOX
NORMAN BATES
OH DAE-SU
OLD MONTY
OTIS DRIFTWOOD
PATRICK BATEMAN
PINHEAD
RANDALL FLAGG
REVEREND HARRY POWELL
RHODA PENMARK
SERGE A. STORMS
SHERIFF HOYT
SWEENEY TODD
TED ALLISON
THE TALL MAN
TOM RIPLEY
WHITEFACE


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

THE MANY TYPES OF MURDER

ASSASSINATION
CHILD MURDER
CONSENSUAL HOMICIDE
CONTRACT KILLING
DEMOCIDE
FELONY MURDER
FETICIDE
FILICIDE
FRATRICIDE
GENDERCIDE
GENOCIDE
HOMICIDE
HONOR KILLING
HUMAN SACRIFICE
INFANTICIDE
JUSTIFIABLE HOMICIDE
LUST MURDER
LYNCHING
MANSLAUGHTER
MARITICIDE
MASS MURDER
MATRICIDE
MURDER-SUICIDE
NEGLIGENT HOMICIDE
PARRICIDE
PATRICIDE
PROLICIDE
PROXY MURDER
REGICIDE
RITUAL MURDER
SERIAL KILLER
SORORICIDE
SPREE KILLER
SUICIDE
TYRANNICIDE
UXORICIDE
VEHICULAR HOMICIDE


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

UNNATURAL LOVE AND IT'S CONNECTIONS TO SERIAL KILLING

OVERVIEW OF PARAPHILIA
OVERVIEW OF FETISHISM
ABASIOPHILIA
ACOUSTICOPHILIA
ACROTOMOPHILIA
ALGOLAGNIA
APOTEMNOPHILIA
AMAUROPHILIA
ANACLITISM
ANDROMIMETOPHILIA
AQUAPHILIA
ARETIFISM
ASPHYXIOPHILIA
AUTOGYNEPHILIA
BIASTOPHILIA
COPROPHILIA
CHRONOPHILIA
CRUSH FETISH
DACRYPHILIA
EMETOPHILIA
EPHEBOPHILIA
EXHIBITIONISM
FOOD PLAY
FORNIPHILIA
FROTTEURISM
GALACTOPHILIA
GYNOPHAGIA
HEMATOLAGNIA
HOMEOVESTISM
HYBRISTOPHILIA
INCEST
INFANTILISM
KATOPTRONOPHILIA
KLEPTOMANIA
KLISMAPHILIA
LUST MURDER
MACROPHILIA
MAIESIOPHILIA
PODOPHILIA
SADISM & MASOCHISM
MICROPHILIA
MYSOPHILIA
NARRATOPHILIA
NASOPHILIA
NECROPHILIA
NEPIOPHILIA
PYROPHILIA
RETIFISM
SALIROMANIA
SCHEDIAPHILIA
SITOPHILIA
SOMNOPHILIA
STATUEPHILIA
TERATOPHILIA
TRANSVESTISM
TROILISM
UROLAGNIA
VINCILAGNIA
VORAREPHILIA
VOYEURISM
ZOOPHILIA


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

FROM THE MOUTH OF KILLERS

ARTHUR SHAWCROSS INTERVIEW
BTK KILLER INTERVIEW
CHARLES MANSON INTERVIEW
ELMER HENLEY INTERVIEW
JAMES MUNRO INTERVIEW
JEFFREY DAHMER INTERVIEW
JOHN ROBINSON INTERVIEW
KEITH JESPERSON INTERVIEW
RICHARD RAMIREZ INTERVIEW
TED BUNDY INTERVIEW
WAYNE LO INTERVIEW
SWAP LINKS WITH US


SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE RETURN TO TOP

AN EVER GROWING COLLECTION OF HORROR MOVIE REVIEWS

ABANDONED, THE
AB-NORMAL BEAUTY
ABOMINABLE
ALBERT FISH
ALONE IN THE DARK
ALONE WITH HER
ALTERED
AMATEUR PORN STAR KILLER
AMAZON JAIL
AN AMERICAN HAUNTING
AND NOW THE SCREAMING STARTS
ANDRE THE BUTCHER
APRIL FOOL'S DAY
ARANG
ASYLUM
AUDREY ROSE
AUNT ROSE
AUTOMATONS
AUTOPSY
AWAKEN THE DEAD
BABY BLOOD
BAD REPUTATION
BAD TASTE
BAISE MOI
BANGKOK HAUNTED
BARE BEHIND BARS
BARRICADE
BASKET CASE
BATTLE IN HEAVEN
BENEATH STILL WATERS
BEYOND THE WALL OF SLEEP
BIG BAD WOLF
BLACK DAHLIA
BTK KILLER
BUTCHER OF PLAINFIELD
CABIN FEVER
CACHE
CAMP BLOOD
CAMP BLOOD 2
CAMP SLAUGHTER
CANDY STRIPERS
CANNIBAL (2005)
CANNIBAL (2006)
CANNIBAL CAMPOUT
CANNIBAL HOLOCAUST
CARD PLAYER, THE
CAVED IN
CAVE, THE
CAVERN, THE
CELLO
CEMETERY GATES
CEMETERY MAN
CENTIPEDE
CERBERUS
CHAINSAW SALLY
CHAOS
CHEERLEADER MASSACRE
CHICAGO MASSACRE
CHILDREN OF THE CORN
CHOKE, THE
CHURCH, THE
CINDERELLA
CITY OF ROTT
CITY OF THE LIVING DEAD
COME GET SOME
CONTAINMENT
CONTAMINATION
CONVENT, THE
COOKERS
CORPSES
COVENANT, THE
CREEP
CREEPSHOW
CREEPSHOW 2
CREEPSHOW 3
CULT
CUP OF MY BLOOD
CURIOUS DR. HUMP, THE
CURSE OF LIZZIE BORDEN
CURSE OF THE DEVIL
CUT
CUT AND RUN
DANIKA
DARK CORNERS
DARK FIELDS
DARK HOURS, THE
DAUGHTERS OF DARKNESS
DAWN
DEAD & BREAKFAST
DEAD & DEADER
DEAD CALLING, A
DEAD LEAVES
DEAD LIFE
DEAD LINE
DEAD MARY
DEAD MEN WALKING
DEAD & ROTTING
DEAD SHIT
DEAD SILENCE
DEATH BED
DEATH BY ENGAGEMENT
DEATH CLIQUE
DEATH KNOWS YOUR NAME
DEATH TUNNEL
DEATH VALLEY
DEATH WALKS AT MIDNIGHT
DEATH WALKS ON HIGH HEALS
DECOYS: THE SECOND SEDUCTION
DEFENCELESS: A BLOOD SYMPHONY
THE DELIBERATE STRANGER
DEMON HUNTER
DEMONIC
DEMONS
DEMONS 2
DESCENT, THE
DESPERATE SOULS
DESPERATION, STEPHEN KING'S
DEVIL'S DEN
DEVIL'S RAIN, THE
DEVIL'S REJECTS, THE
DEVIL TIMES FIVE
DEXTER 6 "RETURN TO SENDER"
DEXTER 7 "CIRCLE OF FRIENDS"
DEXTER 8 "SHRINK WRAP"
DEXTER 9 "FATHER KNOWS BEST"
DEXTER 10 "SEEING RED"
DEXTER 11 "TRUTH BE TOLD"
DEXTER 12 "BORN FREE"
DIARY OF A CANNIBAL
DIE YOU ZOMBIE BASTARDS!
DISTURBANCE
DJANGO
DOG SOLDIERS
DON'T ANSWER THE PHONE
DON'T DELIVER US FROM EVIL
DON'T GO IN THE HOUSE
DON'T TORTURE A DUCKLING
DOOM
DOOMED
DOPPELGANGER
DORM
DORM OF THE DEAD
DO YOU LIKE HITCHCOCK?
DRACULA
DRACULA, HOUSE OF
DRACULA, SPANISH
DRACULA'S CURSE
DRACULA'S DAUGHTER
DREAM REAPER
DROP, THE
DUMBLAND
DUST DEVIL
EATING RAZORS
EDMOND
EMANUELLE AROUND THE WORLD
EMANUELLE IN AMERICA
EMANUELLE IN BANGKOK
ENTRAILS OF A BEAUTIFUL WOMAN
ENTRAILS OF A VIRGIN
EVIL (TO KAKO)
EVIL ALIENS
EVIL BEHIND YOU
EVIL BONG
EVIL BREED
EVIL DEAD TRAP 2
EVIL ED
EVILENKO
EVILSPEAK
EYE, THE
EYES OF CRYSTAL
FACES OF GORE
FAMILY PORTRAIT
FANTOM KILER
FAUSTO 5.0
FEAR OF CLOWNS
FEAST
FEED
FEMALE CONVICT SCORPION
FIFTH CORD, THE
FINAL DESTINATION 3
FIRST BORN
5 DEAD ON THE CRIMSON CANVAS
5IVE GIRLS
FLESH EATERS, THE
FLOWER AND SNAKE
FLOWER AND SNAKE 2
FOG, THE (1980)
FOG, THE (2005)
FORBIDDEN PHOTOS OF A LADY ABOVE SUSPICION
FORCED ENTRY
FOREST OF DEATH
FRAILTY
FRANKENHOOKER
FRANKENSTEIN
FRANKENSTEIN CONQUERS THE WORLD
FREAKMAKER, THE
FREAK OUT
FREAKSHOW
FRENCH SEX MURDERS
FRIDAY THE 13TH
FRIDAY THE 13TH II
FRIDAY THE 13TH III
FRIDAY THE 13TH VI
FRIDAY THE 13TH VII
FRIDAY THE 13TH VIII
FRIGHTMARE
FRIGHT NIGHT
FROM DUSK TILL DAWN
FROM DUSK TILL DAWN 2
FROM DUSK TILL DAWN 3
FROSTBITE
FUNHOUSE, THE
FUNNY GAMES
FUTURE-KILL
GAME BOX 1.0
GANGS OF THE DEAD
GARDEN, THE
GATHERING, THE
GEMINI
GHOST GAME
GHOST LAKE
GHOST OF MAE NAK
GHOST, THE (RYEONG)
GHOUL SCHOOL
GINGER SNAPS
GIRL BOSS GUERILLA
GIRL SLAVES OF MORGANA LE FAY
GOING TO PIECES
GOLDEN AGE
GONE THE WAY OF FLESH
GORE GORE GIRLS, THE
GRAVEDANCERS, THE (2007)
GRAVEYARD ALIVE
GRAVEYARD, THE
GREEN RIVER KILLER
GRINDHOUSE - DEATH PROOF
GRINDHOUSE - PLANET TERROR
GRUB GIRL
GRUDGE, THE
GRUDGE 2, THE
H6: DIARY OF A SERIAL KILLER
HALFWAY HOUSE, THE
HALLOWED
HALLOWEEN NIGHT
HAMILTONS, THE
HANNIBAL RISING
HARD CANDY
HARSH TIMES
HAUNTED FOREST
HAUNTED HIGHWAY
HAUNTED PRISON
HAVOC
THE HAZING
HEADER
HEADHUNTER
HEAD OF THE FAMILY
HEADSPACE
HEAD TRAUMA
HEARTSTOPPER
HELLBENT
HELLFIRE CLUB
HELLRAISER
HELLBOUND: HELLRAISER 2
HELLRAISER 3: HELL ON EARTH
HELLRAISER - DEADER
HELTER SKELTER
HENRY
HIGH TENSION
HILLS HAVE EYES, THE (2006)
HILLS HAVE EYES 2, THE (1985)
HILLS HAVE EYES 2, THE (2007)
HILLSIDE CANNIBALS
HITCHER, THE (1986)
HITCHHIKER, THE
HORROR BUSINESS
HORRORS OF MALFORMED MEN
HORRORS OF WAR
HOSTEL
HOSTEL 2
HOST, THE
HOT FUZZ
HOT WAX: ZOMBIES ON WHEELS
HOUSE OF 9
HOUSE OF BLOOD
HUMAN NO MORE
HUNDRA
HUNT, THE
IDLE HANDS
I DRINK YOUR BLOOD
I'LL BURY YOU TOMORROW
ILSA - SHE WOLF OF THE SS
ILSA - HAREM KEEPER OF THE OIL SHEIKS
ILSA - THE WICKED WARDEN
IN A DARK PLACE
INCUBUS
INFECTION
INNOCENTS, THE
INSECTICIDAL
INSIDE IRVIN
IN THE MOUTH OF MADNESS
INVASION OF THE POD PEOPLE
IRIS EFFECT, THE
IRREVERSIBLE
ISOLATION
I SPIT ON YOUR GRAVE
I STAND ALONE
IT WAITS
IVORY, THE
JACK FROST
JACK FROST 2
JESUS CHRIST VAMPIRE HUNTER
JOSHUA
JUNGLE HOLOCAUST
KARLA
KATIEBIRD: CERTIFIABLE CRAZY PERSON
KAW
KEEPER, THE
KEKKO KAMEN NEW
KIDNAPPED (RABID DOGS)
KILL, BABY...KILL
KILLER KLOWNS FROM OUTER SPACE
KILLER MUST KILL AGAIN, THE
KITTEN KRIME DOUBLE FEATURE
KNIGHT OF THE PEEPER
KOLOBOS
KOVAK BOX, THE
KRAKEN - TENTACLES OF THE DEEP
KWAIDAN
LADY IN THE WATER
LADY SNOWBLOOD: LOVE SON OF VENGEANCE
LADY VENGEANCE
LAST BROADCAST, THE
LAST ROUND, THE
LAST SUPPER, THE
LAURE
LEGEND OF BLOODY JACK, THE
LEGEND OF LUCY KEYES, THE
LEGEND OF THE 7 GOLDEN VAMPIRES
LET ME DIE A WOMAN
LITTLE ERIN MERRYWEATHER
LIVE FEED
LIVE FREAKY DIE FREAKY
LIVING COFFIN, THE
LIVING DOLL
LIVING HELL
LONELY ONES, THE
LONE WOLF AND CUB
LOST, THE
LUCKY
LUTHER THE GEEK
MACUMBA SEXUAL
MAD COWGIRL
MAGDALENA'S BRAIN
MAGIC
MAID, THE
MAID OF HONOR
MAIL ORDER BRIDE
MALPERTUIS
MAN CALLED MAGNUM, A
MANIACTS
MANSION OF THE LIVING DEAD
MAN WITH THE SCREAMING BRAIN
MARAUDERS
MARCUS
MAREBITO
MARK OF THE DEVIL
MARSH, THE
MATAVIEJITAS, LA
MAY
MEATBALL MACHINE
MEN BEHIND THE SUN
MESSENGERS, THE
MEXICAN WEREWOLF IN TEXAS, A
MIKADROID: ROBOKILL BENEATH DISCO CLUB LAYLA
MINOTAUR
MOH - CHOCOLATE
MOH - CIGARETTE BURNS
MOH - DEER WOMAN
MOH - DREAMS IN THE WITCH HOUSE
MOH - FAIR HAIRED CHILD
MOH - HAECKEL'S TALE
MOH - HOMECOMING
MOH - IMPRINT
MOH - INCIDENT ON AND OFF A MOUNTAIN ROAD
MOH - JENIFER
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John Joseph JOUBERT IV

A.K.A.: "Woodford Slasher"

Classification: Serial killer
Characteristics: Kidnapping - Bites - Sadism
Number of victims: 3 +
Date of murders: 1982 - 1983
Date of arrest: January 11, 1984
Date of birth: July 2, 1963
Victims profile: Richard Stetson, 11 / Danny Jo Eberle, 13, and Christopher Walden, 12
Method of murder: Stabbing with knife
Location: Maine/Nebraska, USA
Status: Executed by electrocution in Nebraska on July 17, 1996


On August 22, 1982, 11-year-old Richard Stetson disappeared while jogging near his home, in Portland, Maine. A motorist found his body the next morning, lying beside a rural highway, and while he was initially believed to be the victim of a hit-and-run, autopsy results showed that Stetson was strangled, then stabbed several times in the chest. Bite marks on the body were inflicted by a set of human teeth.

Investigators had no solid evidence to work with, and a year elapsed before a suspect, 24 years old, was booked for Stetson's murder. Charges were dismissed in February 1984, by which time there were two more victims on the list, some 1,500 miles away.

Danny Joe Eberle, age 13, was delivering newspapers in Bellevue, Nebraska, when he vanished on the morning of September 18, 1983. His bicycle and papers were found inside a gate, at the fourth house on his route, but Eberle remained missing until September 21, when searchers pulled his body from some roadside weeds. Partially stripped, he had been stabbed repeatedly, then dumped where he was found. Detectives noticed bite marks on the body, and his ankles had been bound before he died.

On December 2, 12-year-old Christopher Walden disappeared while walking to school in Papillion, Nebraska, three miles from the scene of the Eberle murder. Stabbed repeatedly, his corpse was found by pheasant hunters two days later, hidden in a grove of trees outside of town.

Six weeks later, on January 11, 1984, a suspicious young man was seen loitering around a Bellevue preschool. Challenged by an adult attendant, he shoved her, threatened her with death, then ran to a nearby car and sped away. The attendant memorized his license number, and the rented vehicle was traced to 20-year-old John Joubert, an enlisted man at nearby Offutt Air Force Base. A search of Joubert's quarters turned up rope identical to Danny Eberle's bindings; more rope and a hunting knife were found in his car when Joubert was arrested that night.

In custody, the suspect confessed both local murders, warning detectives that he might kill again, if released. Charged with two counts of homicide on January 12, Joubert was held in lieu of $10 million bond pending trial. He pled guilty to both counts on July 3, 1984, and a panel of three judges fixed his sentence at death.

As a native of Portland, Maine, Joubert had also been making headlines at home. Detectives noted similarities between the two Nebraska murders and the Stetson case, instantly bumping Joubert to the head of their short suspect list. Hair samples and tooth impressions were obtained from Joubert in February 1985, and he was indicted for Richard Stetson's murder on January 10, 1986.

He was executed on July 17, 1996 by the electric chair in Nebraska.

Michael Newton - An Encyclopedia of Modern Serial Killers - Hunting Humans


Nebraska Executes Man Who Killed 3 Boys

July 18, 1996

A man who said he enjoyed the "power and domination" of killing was executed in the electric chair early today for murdering two boys in 1983.

The prisoner, John J. Joubert, a former airman, repeatedly stabbed and slashed Danny Jo Eberle, 13, and Christopher Walden, 12, in Bellevue near Offutt Air Force Base, where he was stationed. He was also convicted of stabbing and strangling a boy in Maine.

In his final statement, Mr. Joubert apologized for the three murders and added, "I do not know if my death will change anything or if it will bring anyone any peace."

In trying to explain the crimes, Mr. Joubert, 33, told The Omaha World-Herald last month: "It was the power and the domination and seeing the fear. That was more exciting than actually causing the harm."

Mr. Joubert was caught after he tried to abduct a preschool teacher, who then noted the license plate number of his car. Mr. Joubert confessed later that day.

Judy Eberle, Danny's mother, said Mr. Joubert deserved the death penalty not out of vengeance but because "it is the only punishment that can make sure that he will never walk the streets again."


John Joubert (July 2, 1963 – July 17, 1996) was a serial killer executed in Nebraska. He had been convicted of the murders of three boys in Maine and Nebraska.

Childhood

Joubert's parents had divorced when he was six years old, and he went to live with his mother in Lawrence, Massachusetts. He was not allowed to visit his father and grew to hate his controlling mother. In 1974, she moved the family to Portland, Maine.

When he was 13, he stabbed a young girl with a pencil and felt sexually stimulated when she cried in pain. The next day, he took a razor blade and slashed another girl as he biked past her. He was never caught for either attack. In another incident, he beat and nearly strangled another boy. He relished the power of bullying, and began to stab or slash others.

Murders

In the town of Back Cove, Maine on August 22, 1982, 11-year-old Richard "Ricky" Stetson had gone jogging. When he had not returned by dark, his parents called the police. The next day, a motorist saw the boy's body on the side of the I-295. The attacker appeared to have attempted to undress him, and then stabbed and strangled him. A suspect was arrested for the murder, but his teeth did not match a bite mark on Stetson's body, and so he was released after a year and a half in custody. The case would go cold until January 1984.

Danny Joe Eberle disappeared while delivering the Omaha World-Herald newspaper on September 18, 1983, near Omaha, Nebraska. His brother, who also delivered the newspaper, had not seen him, but did remember being followed by a white man in a tan car is previous days. It was found that Eberle had only delivered three of the 70 newspapers. At his fourth delivery, his bicycle was discovered along with the rest of the newspapers. There appeared to be no sign of a struggle. Joubert would later describe how he had approached Eberle, drew a knife and then covered the boy's mouth with his hand. He then instructed to boy to follow him and took him to his truck. He then took him to a gravel road outside of town.

After three days of searching, his body was finally discovered about four miles (6 km) from where his bike was found. He had been stripped to his underwear, had his feet and hands bound and mouth taped with surgical tape. Joubert had stabbed him nine times. The crime came under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States, so the FBI was called in.

The investigation followed several leads, including a young man who was arrested for molesting two young boys about a week after the crime. He failed a polygraph test and had a false alibi but did not fit the profile the FBI had created for the murderer. He was released due to a lack of evidence. Other known pedophiles in the area were also questioned but the case went cold due to a sparcity of evidence.

On December 2, Christopher Walden disappeared in Papillon, Nebraska, about three miles (5 km) from where Elberle's body was found. Witnesses again said they saw a white man in a tan car. Joubert said that he had driven up to Walden as he walked, showed him the sheath of his knife and ordered him into the car. After driving to some railways lines out of town, he ordered Walden to strip to his underwear which he did. But then Walden refused to lie down. After a brief struggle, Joubert overpowered and then stabbed him. Joubert cut Walden's throat, so deep that he had almost been decapitated. Walden's body was found two days later five miles (8 km) from the town. Although the crimes were similar there were differences. Walden had not been bound, had been concealed better, and was thought to have been killed immediately after being abducted.

Arrest

On January 11, 1984, a preschool teacher in the area of the murders called police to say that she had seen a young man driving in the area. There are conflicting stories to what occurred — whether the car was loitering or just driving around. When the driver saw the teacher writing down his license plate, he stopped and threatened her before fleeing. The car was not tan, but was traced and found to be rented by John Joubert, an enlisted radar technician from Offutt Air Force Base. It turned out that his own car, which was a tan Nova sedan, was being repaired.

A search warrant was issued, and rope consistent with that used to bind Danny Joe Eberle was found in his apartment. The FBI were able to find that the unusual rope had been made for the United States military in the South Korea. Under interrogation Joubert admitted getting it from the scoutmaster in the troop he was an assistant in.

Trials and appeals

Joubert then confessed to killing the two boys and, on January 12, was charged with their murders. After initially pleading not guilty, he changed his plea to guilty. There were several psychiatric evaluations performed on Joubert. One characterised him as having obsessive-compulsive disorder and sadistic tendencies, and suffering from schizoid personality disorder. He was found to be have not been psychotic at the time of the crimes, however. A panel of three judges sentenced him to death for both counts. Joubert was also sentenced to life imprisonment in Maine in 1990 for the murder of Ricky Stetson, after Joubert's teeth were found to match the bite mark.

In 1995, Joubert filed a writ of habeas corpus to the United States federal courts over the death sentences. His lawyers argued that the aggravating factor of "exceptional depravity" was unconstitutionally vague. The court agreed and the state of Nebraska appealed to the United States District Court for the District of Nebraska. They overturned the appeal, saying that he had shown sadistic behavior by torturing Eberle and Walden.

He was executed on July 17, 1996 by the electric chair.

As part of appeals on the Nebraska Supreme Court over whether the electric chair in Nebraska is a cruel and unusual punishment, it was revealed that Joubert had a 4-inch brain blister on the top of his head and blistering on both sides of his head above his ears.

Wikipedia.org


Trail of violence nears its end

John Joubert, scheduled for execution in Nebraska on Friday, began his bloody attacks in Portland

By Alan Clendenning - Maine Sunday Telegram (Portland, ME)

June 23, 1996

At age 6, John J. Joubert IV fantasized about killing his baby sitter. When he was 11 or 12, Joubert's thoughts turned to strangling and stabbing boys, girls and young women.

Joubert acted on his impulses when he was a bookish high school junior in Portland - and got away with it for years. In a four-month period, he slashed a boy's throat and stabbed a girl and a woman in separate, random attacks that terrorized the city's Oakdale neighborhood.

Then, on Aug. 23, 1982, Joubert abducted a boy he didn't know on Baxter Boulevard and killed, apparently for the first time. He strangled 11-year-old Richard Stetson, stabbed him in the heart and bit him on the leg.

This Friday, Joubert is scheduled to be executed in the Nebraska State Penitentiary's electric chair - 12 years after he was sentenced to death for the murders of two boys in that state.

In a telephone interview Friday from death row, Joubert admitted he killed the three boys and injured his three other victims in Portland. Joubert said the boys he killed reminded him of himself when he was their ages.

Joubert, 32, told the Maine Sunday Telegram he believes he started having the fantasies after he saw his father choke his mother when he was 4. As a teen-ager and young man, Joubert said, he started acting out his fantasies when he felt stress.

"I would act up,'' Joubert said. "And the Richard Stetson case was one such example of acting out.'' He did not elaborate on what sort of stress triggered the attack.

Police believe Joubert is the only serial killer ever to strike in Portland. He spent his formative years in the city developing a taste for sexual gratification through violence, authorities believe.

But Joubert never stood out to many who knew him, and was perceived as a quiet, intelligent and nerdy youth with few friends. The contrast between how Joubert appeared and what he was actually like doesn't surprise experts who have studied serial killers.

"They are not the Charles Manson types who people get scared of when they see them on the street,'' said Peter Smerick, a retired FBI criminal profile specialist who worked in the agency's Behavioral Science Unit in Quantico, Va. "They are the type of people who blend in and don't draw attention to themselves.''

Raised in a broken home

It was only after the Nebraska killings that a disturbing portrait began to emerge about Joubert, his fantasies and his life.

Psychiatric reports noted Joubert was raised in a broken home by a domineering mother who kept him from developing relationships with other children. Joubert was also taunted about his small build from grade school to high school, according to the reports and interviews with classmates.

After his arrest, Joubert was ultimately diagnosed as having a mixed personality disorder with obsessive compulsive and schizoid traits. Though Joubert vehemently denied it, psychiatrists also classified him as a latent homosexual. He told them he had never had sex.

No one knew Joubert was responsible for Stetson's murder until after the Nebraska killings. Only then did police also conclude that Joubert was the young man who rode around Oakdale on a 10-speed bicycle, prowling his newspaper delivery route for victims to hurt.

Joubert was returned to Maine, convicted of murdering Stetson in 1990 and sentenced to life in prison. But the governors of Maine and Nebraska had agreed he would be returned to Nebraska following his trial in Maine, which has no death penalty.

Now Joubert's lawyers are making final efforts to spare his life. He has appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, but Nebraska state officials believe the execution will take place Friday as planned.

"I'm just glad it's almost over,'' said Edward Stetson, Richard's 67-year-old father, who lives in Portland's West Bayside neighborhood. "When it happens, I'll have the knowledge that my dead son's killer has paid the price and won't walk.''

Stetson doesn't understand why Joubert targeted his youngest son, a lively boy with red hair and freckles who loved playing baseball and basketball with other working-class kids from his neighborhood.

Joubert said he regrets killing Stetson and hurting his three victims who survived the Portland attacks.

"I'm sorry for the loss of their son and what I did to the family,'' Joubert said. ``If people can find it in their hearts to forgive me, that's all I ask for.''

Born in Lawrence, Mass.

John Joubert was born on July 2, 1963, in Lawrence, Mass., the first child of Joseph and Beverly Joubert. Two years later, Joubert's sister, Jane, was born. She would later become a Lewiston police officer.

Joubert could read when he was 3 and started checking books out of the library when he was 5. He has an IQ of 123, putting him in the superior range.

While Joubert's parents managed a family restaurant in the gritty mill city, Joubert attended parochial school and served as an altar boy.

Joubert and Brian LaBrecque, a childhood friend, were the smallest boys in their class and got picked on by bullies. From that bond, they formed a friendship. But LaBrecque said Joubert was a shy, smart boy who never showed any signs that he wanted to get back at the bullies.

It was during this period that Joubert's disturbing fantasies began, according to three psychiatric reports on Joubert prepared in 1984.

When he was 6, Joubert started fantasizing about killing his baby sitter. He didn't seem to have anything against the girl, who lived across the street, describing her to one psychiatrist as "just someone to kill.''

Later, Joubert's thoughts turned to killing strangers he saw on the streets and people he knew. In the fantasies, Joubert would stab or strangle his victims, tying and gagging those who struggled.

He fantasized victims saying, "If you're going to do it, do it and get it over with,'' one of the reports said.

Joubert told the Telegram that he now believes he knows what caused his fantasies. Several months ago, Joubert said, he started asking his mother and sister whether he saw or experienced anything that could have caused the fantasies.

For the first time, Joubert said, his mother told him that he saw her being choked by his father until she passed out when he was 4. Joubert does not remember such an incident.

He said he and a therapist believe the fantasies were an escape valve for him to forget the episode of family violence and other family arguments that he apparently saw. From that point, Joubert said, he began to have the fantasies when under any sort of stress.

"I would think these thoughts, and that would relieve the tension,'' Joubert said. "I have learned that it made me feel better, and as I grew up it became a habit.''

Joubert's mother lives in Alaska, and his sister also lives outside Maine. Neither responded to interview requests made through Joubert's lawyer. Attempts to reach Joubert's father, still believed to live in the Lawrence area, were unsuccessful.

Tumult in home increases

After the fantasies began, Joubert's home life became more tumultuous. His parents divorced when he was 8, and he moved to Portland with his mother and sister when he was 11. The family settled in a two-family home in the middle-class Oakdale neighborhood. Joubert's mother worked as a bookkeeper.

The parents continued to argue about where Joubert would live, according to a psychiatric report prepared by Dr. David Kentsmith.

Joubert told psychiatrists he rode his bicycle to visit his father in Lawrence several times because his mother would not give him travel money. Kentsmith also wrote that Joubert's mother belittled him, spanked him until he was 12, ridiculed his father and never approved of Joubert's friends.

He had little success with relationships in school. Joubert told another psychiatrist that he "was a small kid with a funny last name.'' Some of his classmates called him "Jujube,'' a former teacher told the Telegram in 1990.

Joubert said Friday that he believes the ages of the boys he killed was significant, because he was an unhappy child between ages 11 and 13. Targeting boys of that age, he said, was in a way like targeting himself.

"I was repressed, I felt like I had no control of myself, and I imagine I was very angry at myself for allowing this to happen,'' he said.

At age 12, Joubert started delivering newspapers in his neighborhood, a job he would keep until he was 17. With that money and cash earned from summer jobs, Joubert paid his tuition at Cheverus High School, Portland's all-boys Catholic secondary school.

Joubert was in a scouting troop, went on camping trips and briefly played trumpet in a school brass ensemble. But he spent much of his time alone, listening to his stereo in his room or building model airplanes. He never dated.

Joubert took honors courses, excelling in English and history, said Stuart Tisdale Jr., one of his teachers at Cheverus. He maintained a 2.75 grade point average and ran indoor track.

But he was constantly chided for being one of the smallest members of his class, said James Ciampi, a former classmate. Joubert took the taunting personally and became defensive. "It must have been a painful experience for him to go to school every day,'' Ciampi said.

An escalation of rage

Classmates had no idea of the escalating rage that gripped Joubert during a four-month period in his junior year. It would be years before police would identify Joubert as the man responsible for a series of random attacks in the same neighborhood where Joubert delivered the Telegram and the now-defunct Evening Express.

At 4:05 p.m. on Dec. 12, 1979, 6-year-old Sarah Canty dropped a football outside her house at Oakdale and Dartmouth streets. As she bent to pick it up, a young man on a green, 10-speed bicycle rode behind her and stabbed her in the back with a pencil or a screwdriver. Then he rode on, according to police reports. Crying, Sarah ran inside her house. Underneath her jacket, shirt and undershirt was a quarter-inch puncture wound.

About six weeks later, on Jan. 24, 1980, Vicky Goff, 27, was walking on Deering Avenue at 7:15 p.m., heading to a creative writing class at the University of Southern Maine. When a young man walked by her, Goff said 'Hi' to him. Moments later, a hand came over her mouth from behind and Goff felt like she'd been punched in the side.

Goff recalled falling down, standing up and yelling, "Why'd you do that?'' to the young man as he ran away. Goff saw blood and realized she had been stabbed with a knife. She had surgery for a punctured kidney at Maine Medical Center and spent a week recovering in the hospital.

Two months to the day after Goff was stabbed, on March 24, a third-grade student was walking on Deering Avenue when a young man with a 10-speed bicycle beckoned the boy to come closer. The man asked Michael Witham, 9, who he was and where he was going. Then Witham looked away for a moment and was slashed in the throat with an X-acto knife. Michael ran home bleeding. It took 12 stiches to close the 2-inch wound.

The crimes shocked the normally peaceful neighborhood. School officials told children not to walk home alone. One parents' group considered offering a reward for information leading to the arrest of the man who stabbed Michael Witham.

Goff, who had recently moved to Portland when she was stabbed, left the city with her husband four months after she was attacked.

"I really did like Portland a lot,'' she said. ``But I didn't want to stay after that.''

Then the attacks cease

The attacks stopped as suddenly as they had started.

Joubert graduated from Cheverus in 1981. In the fall, he attended Norwich University, a small military college in Northfield, Vt.

Joubert, studying engineering, didn't do well at school but appeared to make friends for the first time. He also experimented with alcohol and marijuana but told pyschiatrists that he didn't like how they made him feel.

Enjoying his new-found college freedom, Joubert completed only 10 credits at Norwich. Then he couldn't find work in the summer of 1982. So he enlisted in the Air Force in August - the same month that Richard Stetson's body was found near Tukey's Bridge.

Richard told his parents at 7:45 p.m. on Aug. 23 that he was going jogging around Back Cove. "Be careful,'' his father told him. "Don't go too far.''

Witnesses saw Stetson running around the cove's jogging path. They said he appeared to be accompanied by a young man riding a 10-speed bicycle.

The next morning, a woman discovered Richard's bloody body in a patch of grass off Baxter Boulevard. He had been strangled and stabbed once in the chest. Slashes on Richard's right calf covered a bite mark.

A Westbrook man was indicted on a charge of murdering Stetson, but prosecutors dropped the charges against Joseph W. Anderson, then 24, because the bite mark on Richard's leg didn't match Anderson's teeth.

Joubert was long gone from Maine by then. He went into the Air Force four months after Stetson was murdered, trained as a radar technician and was stationed at Offutt Air Force Base in Bellevue, Neb.

In Nebraska, he pored over pictures in True Detective magazine, fascinated by pictures that showed terrified women.

Joubert soon started setting his alarm for 6:30 a.m. daily, waking up to decide whether he would go look for a victim. Most mornings he shut off the alarm and went back to sleep.

Abducts news carrier

But on Sept. 18, 1983, Joubert abducted Danny Joe Eberle, 13, as the boy started his Sunday morning paper route in Bellevue. Joubert tied the boy's hands and feet, put tape on his mouth and drove him to a rural area a few miles from the Air Force base. Joubert stabbed Danny Joe 11 times. His body was found three days later.

On Dec. 2 of that year, 12-year-old Christopher Walden, another Bellevue boy, disappeared on his way to school. The boy's body, also stabbed repeatedly, was found in a grove of trees three days later.

The killings horrified local residents, but Joubert wasn't caught until he almost struck again. On Jan. 11, 1984, he accosted a church nursery school director and threatened to kill her. The woman ran away and memorized the license plate on Joubert's car. Officers found Joubert at the base. He confessed to the killings of the two Nebraska boys.

Joubert told authorities that he was glad police caught him, because he probably would have killed again.

Joubert said Friday that he now knows he would never kill again, even if he could get out of jail, because he has found the reason for his fantasies. He said he finds comfort in finding a reason that explains why he killed, but is amazed at how "trivial'' that reason is compared with the horrific nature of the crimes.

He said he fears dying and periodically imagines himself being led to the electric chair, but tries to put those thoughts out of his head.

"I suppose I'm dealing with it in the way that anyone would deal with a death before their time, like a 32-year-old terminally ill person who is hoping for a transplant,'' Joubert said.

He said he spends his time reading, lifting weights and helping his lawyers with the legal efforts to have his sentence changed to life in prison with no chance of parole.

During the past week, Joubert said, both his mother and sister visited. He said his mother has decided not to witness the execution and that he hopes his sister won't watch it, either.

Visit from girlfriend

On Saturday, Joubert expected to get a visit from his first girlfriend - a woman from Ireland with whom he started corresponding four years ago. Joubert said he and Theresa O'Brien, 37, are in love and that she has visited him each spring since 1994.

The two are allowed to kiss on the lips at the start and end of each visit, and can hold hands during the visit. ``She's sad and very concerned, but she is kind of like me - she doesn't see much point in grieving now,'' Joubert said. "I'm not dead yet.''

Victims of Joubert's crimes have a different take on his future. Goff, the woman stabbed by Joubert on Deering Avenue, said the thing that will ensure Joubert never kills again is his execution.

"I don't care how they do it,'' she said. "It is sickening having been touched by somebody who would do such things to children.''

Stetson said he is unimpressed with Joubert's remorse.

"He says he's sorry, but that's not going to do any good,'' he said. "I think the guy is just trying to make people feel sorry for him so he can buy more time.''

*****

JOHN JOUBERT'S CRIMINAL HISTORY

John J. Joubert IV, scheduled to be executed Friday in Nebraska, terrorized Portland's Oakdale neighborhood 16 years ago with a series of random attacks. Then he murdered a Portland boy. Joubert joined the Air Force and was stationed in Nebraska, where he killed two more boys before he was caught. Here's a history of Joubert's crimes:

Dec. 12, 1979: Sarah Canty, playing outside her parent's home at Oakdale and Dartmouth streets, is stabbed in the back with a screwdriver or a pencil by a bicyclist who rides on. The 6-year-old is treated for a quarter-inch puncture wound.

Jan. 24, 1980: Vicky Goff, 27, is walking on Deering Avenue to the University of Southern Maine when a young man attacks her from behind, putting his hand over her mouth and stabbing her in the side with a knife. The man runs away. Goff, bleeding, gets medical assistance at USM. She has surgery for a punctured kidney.

March 24, 1980: Michael Witham, 9, is beckoned to a wooded area along Deering Avenue by a young man with a bicycle. The man asks Witham a few questions, then slashes his throat. Witham runs away bleeding and receives 12 stitches to close the 2-inch wound.

Aug. 23, 1982: Richard Stetson, 11, goes jogging on Baxter Boulevard. He is strangled, stabbed and bitten on the leg. A woman finds his bloody body the next morning in a patch of grass near Tukey's Bridge.

Sept. 18, 1983: Danny Joe Eberle, 13, is abducted as he starts his Sunday morning paper route in Bellevue, Neb. The child is driven to a rural area and repeatedly stabbed.

Dec. 2, 1983: Christopher Walden, 12, disappears on his way to school in Bellevue, Neb. The boy's body, repeatedly stabbed, is found in a grove of trees three days later.

Jan. 11, 1984: A church nursery school director is accosted in Bellevue by a man who threatens to kill her. The woman runs away but memorizes the license plate number of the man's car. Police trace it to Joubert. He confesses to the Nebraska killings and admits years later to killing Stetson.

1996 Maine Sunday Telegram


75 F.3d 1232

John J. Joubert, Appellee/Cross-Appellant,
v.
Frank X. Hopkins, Appellant/Cross-Appellee. Docket number: 94-3687

Federal Circuits, 8th Cir. January 25, 1996

On Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Nebraska; William G. Cambridge, Judge. J. Kirk Brown, Asst. Atty. General, Lincoln, Nebraska, argued, for Appellant.

Mark Alan Weber, Omaha, Nebraska, argued (J. Joseph McQuillan and Scott A. Calkins, on the brief), for Appellee.

Before BEAM, BRIGHT, and MURPHY, Circuit Judges.

BEAM, Circuit Judge.

John Joubert entered guilty pleas to two counts of first-degree murder. He received a death sentence on each count. After pursuing direct and collateral relief in the state courts, he filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in federal district court. The district court found that Mr. Joubert's death sentences were based on an unconstitutionally vague statutory aggravating factor and granted the writ. The State of Nebraska appeals. Joubert cross-appeals the district court's denial of other claims presented in his habeas petition. We affirm in part and reverse in part.

I. BACKGROUND

In the fall of 1983, Joubert, a recent transferee to Offutt Airforce Base, began to act out his fantasies of stabbing young boys to death. Early one September morning, he went hunting for a victim. He saw 13-year-old Danny Eberle delivering papers. Joubert grabbed, gagged, and bound Danny, put him in the trunk of a car, and took him to a remote area. He stripped Danny to his underwear, sequentially untying and retying the boy's bonds. Danny's gag worked loose and he asked Joubert if he was going to die. When Joubert said yes, Danny tried to roll away, but Joubert stabbed him in the back, pinning him to the ground with the knife. While pinned, Danny promised not to tell if Joubert would take him to a hospital. Joubert considered the proposition, but decided that Danny would probably get him in trouble if allowed to live. So, he stabbed and sliced the boy until he died from loss of blood.

Several months later, Joubert again went out in the predawn to hunt for a victim. He saw 12-year-old Christopher Walden walking to school. He displayed his knife to Christopher and told him to come along. Once in the car, Joubert made Christopher get down on the floor boards out of sight. When the boy began to cry, Joubert considered releasing him, but decided against it for fear of being caught. Joubert took Christopher to a secluded spot and instructed him to strip to his underwear and to lay down on his back. Because of the snow, the boy balked at laying down, so Joubert "encouraged" him by putting his hands around Christopher's neck and forcing him down. Joubert continued to strangle Christopher, but his hands got cold, so he took his knife and started stabbing and slicing the boy, finally cutting his throat. Christopher remained cognizant for some time, and then gradually lapsed into a coma and died from loss of blood. He was found with a figure resembling a plant carved into his torso.

Joubert went hunting again one January morning. He found a preschool teacher. She became suspicious while he observed her from his car and wrote down his license plate number. When he approached her, and tried to force her into a school room while threatening to kill her, she burst past him and called the police. A license check led to Joubert. While being questioned about the school incident, Joubert began to make spontaneous admissions as to the murders of the two boys. After waiving his rights, Joubert confessed to the two murders, giving details unknown to the public which were corroborated by the crime scenes. He also provided police with details they had been unable to reconstruct, which were later corroborated. The police subsequently discovered physical evidence further linking Joubert to the murders.

Joubert was charged with two counts of first-degree murder. Before trial, Joubert entered guilty pleas pursuant to a plea bargain. In exchange for the pleas, the state agreed not to present evidence to the sentencing panel that Joubert had previously murdered a young boy in Maine.1 After a sentencing hearing, in which the state adhered to its bargain, Joubert was sentenced to death on both counts. In imposing the death penalty, the sentencing panel found two statutory aggravating factors in regard to the murder of Danny Eberle: 1) that he was killed in order to conceal the perpetrator's identity (Nebraska statutory aggravator 29-2523(1)(b)); and 2) that the murder was both "especially heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel" and represented "exceptional depravity" as those terms were defined at that time (Nebraska statutory aggravator 29-2523(1)(d)).2 In regard to the murder of Christopher Walden, the panel found three statutory aggravating factors: 1) that Christopher was killed in order to conceal the perpetrator's identity; 2) that the murder was both "especially heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel" and represented "exceptional depravity;" and 3) that at the time of the murder, the perpetrator had "a substantial history of serious assaultive or terrorizing criminal activity" (Nebraska statutory aggravator 29-2523(1)(a)).

After Joubert's direct and postconviction appeals were denied by the state courts, he filed a petition for habeas corpus in federal district court alleging numerous grounds for relief including: 1) his death sentences were infirm because "exceptional depravity" is an unconstitutionally vague aggravator; 2) the sentencing panel improperly applied the aggravating circumstance relating to a history of serious assaultive criminal activity to Joubert; 3) the sentencing panel erred in finding that Joubert killed his victims to avoid detection; 4) the trial judge improperly injected himself into the plea bargain process; 5) his counsel was constitutionally ineffective for failing to inform him that the trial court was willing to accept a conditional plea; and 6) Nebraska's death penalty process is facially discriminatory and discriminatory as applied, because it is facially arbitrary and because prosecutorial discretion results in uneven application.

The district court granted relief on the claim that "exceptional depravity" is an unconstitutionally vague aggravating circumstance, and denied relief on Joubert's other claims. The State of Nebraska appeals, arguing the writ was improperly granted, and that even if properly granted, the district court improperly limited the state's options as to how to respond to the writ. Joubert appeals the district court's denial of those other claims listed above.

II. DISCUSSION

A. "Exceptional Depravity" Statutory Aggravator

In granting relief, the district court found that Joubert's vagueness claim had been properly presented to the state courts. Alternatively, it found that any procedural bar was excused under the cause and prejudice standard. Finally, the district court found that the "exceptional depravity" prong of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d) was unconstitutionally vague as it was defined at the time of Joubert's sentencing. Generally, the existence of the "atrocious, heinous, [and] cruel" prong (which had been constitutionally narrowed at the time it was applied to Joubert) would suffice to support the application of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d) independently of any infirmity in the "exceptional depravity" prong. See supra n. 2. In this case, however, the sentencing panel explicitly relied more heavily on the "exceptional depravity" prong than on the "heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel" prong to find the existence of the aggravator. The district court found that such greater reliance on the unconstitutionally vague prong rendered the death sentence infirm under Stringer v. Black, 503 U.S. 222, 232, 112 S.Ct. 1130, 1137, 117 L.Ed.2d 367 (1992) (use of an invalid aggravator in a weighing state amounts to an impermissible thumb on death's scale). While we might agree with the district court's Stringer concerns, we reverse on other grounds.

1. Procedural Bar

In the absence of cause and prejudice, or a sufficient showing of likely actual innocence, a federal habeas court may consider only those issues which have been raised and fairly presented to the state courts. Sawyer v. Whitley, 505 U.S. 333, 337-39, 112 S.Ct. 2514, 2518-19, 120 L.Ed.2d 269 (1992). A claim has been fairly presented when a petitioner has properly raised the "same factual grounds and legal theories" in the state courts which he is attempting to raise in his federal habeas petition. E.g., Forest v. Delo, 52 F.3d 716, 719 (8th Cir.1995), Keithley v. Hopkins, 43 F.3d 1216, 1217 (8th Cir.), cert. denied, --- U.S. ----, 115 S.Ct. 2620, 132 L.Ed.2d 862 (1995); Flieger v. Delo, 16 F.3d 878, 884 (8th Cir.), cert. denied, --- U.S. ----, 115 S.Ct. 355, 130 L.Ed.2d 309 (1994).

The district court found that although Joubert had not specifically raised the vagueness claim in his direct appeal or in his state postconviction proceedings, the vagueness claim was nonetheless fairly presented. It concluded that Joubert's argument to the state court that there was insufficient evidence to support applying the "exceptional depravity" factor in his case encompassed the claim of unconstitutional vagueness. Specifically, the district court found that "a Fourteenth Amendment due process issue is inherent in the analysis of the [insufficient evidence] issue."3 Joubert v. Hopkins, No. 8:CV91-00350, mem. op. at 97 (D.Neb. Oct. 11, 1994). Therefore, the district court held that there was no procedural bar.

We have closely examined Joubert's arguments to the state court, and nowhere in his discussion of the "exceptional depravity" circumstance does he mention either the Eighth or Fourteenth Amendment or unconstitutional vagueness. Just as a claim that there is insufficient evidence to support a conviction does not carry within it a challenge to the constitutionality of the statute under which one was convicted, so an argument that there is insufficient evidence to support the application of an aggravator does not "inherently" subsume an argument that the aggravator itself is unconstitutional, much less that it is unconstitutional on vagueness grounds. One argument is fact-based, the other is legal, and they are completely different. Because Joubert did not present the same facts and legal theory to the state courts that he now raises to the federal courts, the vagueness claim was not fairly presented and is procedurally barred. See Branscomb v. Norris, 47 F.3d 258, 261 (8th Cir.) (rejecting argument that competency claim "essentially" considered in denial of motion for independent psychiatric evaluation), cert. denied, --- U.S. ----, 115 S.Ct. 2260, 132 L.Ed.2d 266 (1995).

Joubert also argues there is no bar because the issue was considered by the last state court to consider his case. To make this claim, he misconstrues a concurrence which mentions the "exceptional depravity" aggravator only in the context of asserting that it is not a separate prong of a two-prong aggravator, but part and parcel of a unitary "especially heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel" aggravator which was proved beyond a reasonable doubt. State v. Joubert, 224 Neb. 411, 399 N.W.2d 237, 253-58 (1986), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 905 , 108 S.Ct. 247, 98 L.Ed.2d 205 (1987) (Joubert ). The concurrence does not consider the vagueness of "exceptional depravity." Joubert's argument is without merit.

Joubert further argues that the issue is not barred because the Nebraska Supreme Court exercised its responsibility to review his death penalty, and thus necessarily considered even defaulted errors. While the scope of mandatory state court review may be broad enough to revive a defaulted claim, the extent of that review is a question of state law. See Ake v. Oklahoma, 470 U.S. 68, 74-75, 105 S.Ct. 1087, 1091-92, 84 L.Ed.2d 53 (1985) (state court review for "fundamental trial error" includes otherwise waived constitutional errors); LaRette v. Delo, 44 F.3d 681, 687 (8th Cir.1995) (scope of mandatory review is a question of state law, issues falling outside that scope may not be deemed presented to the state courts). Nebraska law requires its supreme court to examine the facts of a capital case including those underlying aggravating and mitigating circumstances, the charges filed, the crime of conviction, the sentence, and the proportionality of that sentence compared with those imposed in similar capital crimes in Nebraska. Neb.Rev.Stat. §§ 29-2521.01-.03 (Reissue 1989 & Supps.1992-94). The legislature's explicit concern is to promote fairness and uniformity and to guard against local prejudice and hysteria in the imposition of the death penalty. The resultant review scheme is factually oriented and directs the Nebraska Supreme Court to ascertain that the facts support the charges, conviction, and penalty in any given capital case, and that such penalty is not disproportionate to those meted out in similar cases. It does not impose on the Nebraska Supreme Court the duty to recognize and to raise, sua sponte, federal constitutional issues. See Nave v. Delo, 22 F.3d 802, 815-16 (8th Cir.1994) (factually oriented state mandatory review scheme did not impose duty to reach federal constitutional claims sua sponte ).

Finally, Joubert argues that the vagueness issue is not barred because it is plain error, and because appellate courts in Nebraska reserve the right to note plain error regardless of whether it has been preserved. Even assuming the right to conduct plain error review equates with the duty to do so, a proposition about which we state no opinion, this argument fails. At the time of Joubert's sentencing, the Nebraska Supreme Court had attempted several times to constitutionally narrow the "exceptional depravity" prong of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d) through its case law. See Moore v. Clarke, 904 F.2d 1226, 1234-35 (8th Cir.1990) (F. Gibson, dissenting) (discussing Nebraska Supreme Court's pre-Palmer cases narrowing "exceptional depravity"), cert. denied, 504 U.S. 930 , 112 S.Ct. 1995, 118 L.Ed.2d 591 (1992). A state supreme court may cure a defectively vague aggravating circumstance through adoption of an acceptably narrowed construction. Proffitt v. Florida, 428 U.S. 242, 255-56, 96 S.Ct. 2960, 2968, 49 L.Ed.2d 913 (1976); see also Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153, 201, 96 S.Ct. 2909, 2938, 49 L.Ed.2d 859 (1976) (no reason to assume the Georgia Supreme Court will not adopt and apply a constitutionally narrowed construction of facially vague aggravator). Because the Nebraska Supreme Court had attempted to narrow this aggravator at the time of Joubert's sentencing, albeit unsuccessfully, the application of that narrowed definition to Joubert at his sentencing was not plain error. Thus, there was no plain error for the Nebraska Supreme Court to review. In the absence of cause and prejudice, Joubert's vagueness claim is procedurally barred.

2. Cause and Prejudice

i. Cause

A federal habeas court may consider a petitioner's procedurally defaulted claims if the petitioner establishes both cause for and prejudice from his default. Wainwright v. Sykes, 433 U.S. 72, 97 S.Ct. 2497, 53 L.Ed.2d 594 (1977); see also Engle v. Isaac, 456 U.S. 107, 126-30, 102 S.Ct. 1558, 1571-73, 71 L.Ed.2d 783 (1982) (discussing the concerns animating the application of the cause and prejudice test to procedural defaults in habeas cases). To establish cause, a petitioner must show that some objective factor external to the defense prevented him from presenting or developing the factual or legal basis of his constitutional claim. Murray v. Carrier, 477 U.S. 478, 488-89, 106 S.Ct. 2639, 2645-46, 91 L.Ed.2d 397 (1986). Interference by the state, ineffective assistance of counsel, and conflicts of interest are examples of factors external to the defense which prevent a petitioner from developing the factual basis of his claim. See Amadeo v. Zant, 486 U.S. 214, 222, 108 S.Ct. 1771, 1776, 100 L.Ed.2d 249 (1988) (interference); Coleman v. Thompson, 501 U.S. 722 , 754, 111 S.Ct. 2546, 2567, 115 L.Ed.2d 640 (1991) (ineffective assistance); Jennings v. Purkett, 7 F.3d 779, 782 (8th Cir.1993) (conflict of interest). Legal novelty may be cause for failure to present a legal claim for which the factual basis is readily available. Reed v. Ross, 468 U.S. 1, 13-14, 104 S.Ct. 2901, 2908-09, 82 L.Ed.2d 1 (1984).

The district court found that even if Joubert had defaulted on the vagueness claim in the state court, he had shown cause for his default. Joubert persuaded the district court that although federal law as to the vagueness of the "exceptional depravity" aggravator was well settled at the time of his state court actions, the lack of explicit state legal precedent on the question established cause. According to Joubert, this lack of state precedent on the federal question rendered the "factual basis" of the claim unavailable at the time of his state court proceedings. This argument is flawed.

First, there is no question that the argument as to the unconstitutional vagueness of "exceptional depravity" is not legally novel, and was not legally novel at the time of Joubert's state court proceedings. Legal novelty constitutes cause only if the claim is "so novel that its legal basis is not reasonably available to counsel." Ross, 468 U.S. at 16, 104 S.Ct. at 2910. The legal basis for arguing that "exceptional depravity" was impermissibly vague was readily available by the time of Joubert's first appeal in 1985.

At that time, Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238, 92 S.Ct. 2726, 33 L.Ed.2d 346 (1972), which invalidated all death penalty procedures then in place as arbitrary and impermissibly vague, was thirteen years old. The case of Godfrey v. Georgia, 446 U.S. 420, 431, 100 S.Ct. 1759, 1766, 64 L.Ed.2d 398 (1980), which found an "outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible, or inhuman" aggravator to be unconstitutionally vague, was five years old. Later, in Maynard v. Cartwright, 486 U.S. 356, 362-64, 108 S.Ct. 1853, 1858-59, 100 L.Ed.2d 372 (1988), the Supreme Court found that there was no functional difference between an "especially heinous, atrocious, or cruel" aggravator and the unconstitutionally vague aggravator in Godfrey. Maynard, in turn, was found to have been dictated by precedent in Stringer v. Black, 503 U.S. 222, 228, 112 S.Ct. 1130, 1135, 117 L.Ed.2d 367 (1992), and thus not a new rule.4 See Teague v. Lane, 489 U.S. 288, 301, 109 S.Ct. 1060, 1070, 103 L.Ed.2d 334 (1989) (a new rule is one which is not dictated by precedent5). If holding that "outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible, or inhuman" is an unconstitutionally vague aggravator (Godfrey, 1980) dictates finding that "especially heinous, atrocious, or cruel" (Maynard, 1988) is also unconstitutionally vague, the argument as to the impermissible vagueness of "exceptional depravity," even as then narrowed by the Nebraska Supreme Court, was certainly not "so novel that its legal basis was not reasonably available to counsel" at the time of Joubert's appeal in 1985.

Joubert, however, mixing apples and oranges, claims that the Nebraska state courts' failure to address the issue by the time of his appeal rendered the argument "factually" unavailable to him. He mistakenly relies on Blair v. Armontrout, 916 F.2d 1310, 1325 (8th Cir.1990) as support for this proposition. Blair does not stand for the proposition that lack of state precedent about an established federal issue amounts to cause. Rather, Blair recognizes that uncertainty as to state law itself can constitute cause for failure to raise a constitutional claim. More particularly, Blair's equal protection and ex post facto arguments were unavailable to him until the Missouri Supreme Court held that one of its decisions was to be applied prospectively in some circumstances and retroactively in others, including Blair's. See Blair, 916 F.2d at 1328-31; State v. Goddard, 649 S.W.2d 882 (Mo.1983) (en banc). Thus, Blair had no constitutional complaint until the Missouri Supreme Court created the rule in question.

Joubert's situation is diametrically opposed to Blair's. An aggravator which was facially vague, and arguably so even as narrowed, under then existent and controlling federal precedent had been applied in Joubert's sentencing. No act of the Nebraska Supreme Court was needed to create or to perfect his constitutional complaint. The mere fact that the Nebraska Supreme Court had not decided the issue, or even a likelihood that they would decide it against him if he raised it, did not render the issue "factually" unavailable to him and cannot constitute cause. See Engle v. Isaac, 456 U.S. 107, 130-31, 102 S.Ct. 1558, 1573, 71 L.Ed.2d 783 (1982) (lack of state precedent on nonnovel constitutional issue is not cause; such a rule would be contrary to the principles supporting Wainwright v. Sykes ). Thus, Joubert has not shown cause for his default.

ii. Prejudice

While the district court made no explicit finding that Joubert was prejudiced by the application of the "exceptional depravity" prong in his sentencing, it apparently assumed so because, after finding cause, it proceeded directly to the merits of Joubert's claim. It is clear, however, from the district court's discussion of the merits that it did consider Joubert to be prejudiced. As mentioned, the district court noted that the sentencing panel had explicitly relied more heavily on the "exceptional depravity" prong than on the "especially heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel" prong in finding the existence of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d). Thus, even though a finding of either prong will normally suffice to establish the existence of the aggravator, under Stringer, 503 U.S. at 232, 112 S.Ct. at 1137, the district court feared that the heavy reliance on the "exceptional depravity" prong placed an impermissible thumb on death's scale. See Williams v. Clarke, 40 F.3d 1529, 1538-42 (8th Cir.1994) (Stringer mandates harmless error analysis where both independent prongs of § 29-2523(1)(d) applied if one prong was constitutionally invalid). However, because Joubert has not shown cause, we need not decide whether any unconstitutional "thumb" is enough to establish the prejudice required by Wainwright, 433 U.S. at 87, 97 S.Ct. at 2506. See United States v. Frady, 456 U.S. 152, 166-69, 102 S.Ct. 1584, 1593-95, 71 L.Ed.2d 816 (1982) (the prejudice required for a defaulted claim to undermine constitutionality of final judgment on collateral review can be higher than that required to merit reversal on same claim on direct review).iii. Miscarriage of Justice

Joubert also argues that his procedural default should be excused to prevent a fundamental miscarriage of justice. However, he does not profess that he is actually innocent of the murders of these boys, nor does he attempt to make the requisite showing under Schlup v. Delo, --- U.S. ----, ----, 115 S.Ct. 851, 867, 130 L.Ed.2d 808 (1994) (petitioner must present new evidence showing that a constitutional violation has probably resulted in the conviction of one who is actually innocent). Neither does he argue, nor make any showing, that he is actually innocent of the death penalty under Sawyer v. Whitley, 505 U.S. 333, 346, 112 S.Ct. 2514, 2523, 120 L.Ed.2d 269 (1992) (petitioner must show by clear and convincing evidence that but for constitutional error no reasonable jury would have found him eligible for the death penalty).

The sentencing panel found several separate statutory aggravating circumstances for each murder. It also found that the independent "especially heinous, atrocious [and] cruel" prong of aggravating circumstance 29-2523(1)(d) had been proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Therefore, the specter that the vagueness of the "exceptional depravity" prong of 29-2523(1)(d) may have worked to Joubert's disadvantage does not amount to clear and convincing evidence that but for constitutional error no reasonable jury would have found him eligible for the death penalty. Thus, there is no fundamental miscarriage of justice to lift the procedural bar.

3. Merits

Even though Joubert's claim of vagueness of the "exceptional depravity" prong of 29-2523(1)(d) is procedurally barred, it would not be inappropriate to discuss the merits of the claim, this being a death penalty case. In this instance, as we explain, we decline to do so.

We recognize that in a weighing state,6 generally, a state appellate court may cure a constitutional deficiency arising from improper applications or limitations of aggravating or mitigating circumstances in a capital case by engaging either in reweighing, or in traditional harmless error analysis. Clemons v. Mississippi, 494 U.S. 738, 754, 110 S.Ct. 1441, 1451, 108 L.Ed.2d 725 (1990). Although the district court correctly determined that the definition of "exceptional depravity" applied at Joubert's sentencing was unconstitutionally vague, we note that the Nebraska Supreme Court did apply a narrower definition of "exceptional depravity" than that in effect at the time of sentencing when performing its mandated review to assure that the facts in Joubert's case supported the sentence.7 See Joubert, 399 N.W.2d at 251. That narrowed definition is clearly constitutional. Walton v. Arizona, 497 U.S. 639, 654-55, 110 S.Ct. 3047, 3057-58, 111 L.Ed.2d 511 (1990);8 see also Moore v. Clarke, 951 F.2d 895, 896-97 (8th Cir.1991) (Moore II ). Using that narrowed definition, the Nebraska Supreme Court found the "exceptional depravity" prong to be established beyond a reasonable doubt. Joubert, 399 N.W.2d at 251. If the Nebraska Supreme Court then lawfully reweighed the aggravating and mitigating circumstances underlying Joubert's death penalties, any possible constitutional defect in Joubert's sentence was arguably cured.

However, we decline to address either whether the Nebraska Supreme Court had the authority to reweigh under the circumstances here present,9 or, if it had such authority, whether it did indeed reweigh and cure Joubert's sentence. We so decline because the parties did not clearly brief and argue these issues,10 because it is not clear to us that the Nebraska Supreme Court indeed engaged in a deliberate reweighing, and because any error as to the application of the "exceptionally depraved" prong was harmless beyond a reasonable doubt.

4. Harmless Error

Regardless of the effectiveness of any arguable state court appellate reweighing, we find any error in the application of the "exceptional depravity" prong at sentencing to have been harmless beyond a reasonable doubt. See Williams, 40 F.3d at 1539-41 (federal courts must conduct harmless error analysis before issuing the writ). Because the Nebraska Supreme Court simply applied a narrowed definition of "exceptional depravity" in its Joubert decision, without considering whether there was constitutional error at sentencing, we apply Chapman analysis. See id. (In habeas, the more deferential Brecht harmless error standard generally is applied to constitutional errors considered harmless by state courts, but the strict Chapman standard is used where a state court has not applied Chapman analysis in the first instance.). Under Chapman, we must determine whether the error, if any, is harmless beyond a reasonable doubt. Williams, 40 F.3d at 1541.

To perform this analysis, we must determine whether the facts support the application of aggravating factor 29-2523(1)(d) without consideration of the "exceptional depravity" prong, and if so (or if not) whether, in view of all the other aggravating and mitigating circumstances found to be present, the sentence would have been the same beyond a reasonable doubt. See id. (constitutional harmless error analysis entails de novo review of the record). The other prong of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d), "especially heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel," had been constitutionally narrowed at the time of Joubert's sentencing. Harper, 895 F.2d at 479. A finding that a murder was "especially heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel" independently supports the application of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d). See supra note 2. This prong considers the crime from the victim's point of view. Joubert, 399 N.W.2d at 249. To fall within this prong, the murder in question must involve torture, sadism, sexual abuse, or the infliction of extreme suffering on the victim. Harper, 895 F.2d at 478. Murders which are unnecessarily torturous fall within this category. Id. We look to the facts to decide whether aggravator 29-2523(1)(d) would have been found to exist regardless of the "exceptional depravity" prong.

Considering the case of Danny Eberle, the evidence shows that after being bound, gagged, and transported like a sack of flour in the trunk of a car, Danny was stripped to his underwear, told he was going to be killed, held pinned by a knife in the back as he desperately tried to bargain for his life, and then butchered as he lay helplessly bound by the infliction of nine antemortem slicing and stabbing wounds. Danny remained conscious and aware at least three or four minutes into the final assault, plus he endured the knife in his back as he pled for his life. Even to an adult those minutes would have seemed like an eternity. They would be all the more so for a child. These actions of stripping, binding, and slicing a young boy nine times while he knowingly awaits his death involve a deep element of sadism. A more terrifying, torturous, and humiliating death we can not imagine. Thus, we find beyond a reasonable doubt that aggravator 29-2523(1)(d) would have been applied even had the sentencing panel not considered the "exceptional depravity" prong.

The sentencing panel also found in aggravation that Joubert killed Danny, in part, to conceal his identity. The evidence establishes beyond a reasonable doubt, that once embarked on his enterprise, Joubert seriously considered letting Danny go in response to his promise not to tell, but decided to continue in order to avoid detection. A murderer, like any other human being, is a complex person with a fluid thought process, and may have multiple motivations for acting. That Joubert also killed to satisfy his curiosity and sexual fantasies in no way detracts from the fact that he finished the project because he believed Danny would otherwise get him in trouble. Thus we find this aggravator to have been proven beyond a reasonable doubt.

In mitigation, the panel credited Joubert for pleading guilty. It also found that Joubert had no prior significant criminal history at the time he killed Danny and that he was acting under an extreme mental disturbance. However, there was also evidence that while Joubert was acting out disturbed fantasies, he could control his behavior and choose not to act out his fantasies.

As noted, there is no mathematical formula available for weighing. The process requires a careful examination and weighing of the relevant factors given the totality of circumstances. Williams, 40 F.3d at 1542.

In view of the overwhelming evidence of the callousness of Danny Eberle's murder and of his extreme suffering, and considering that Joubert could control his morbid desires, we find beyond a reasonable doubt that the sentence would have been the same had the "exceptional depravity" prong of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d) not been considered by the sentencing panel.

In Christopher Walden's murder, the evidence shows Christopher was abducted, forced to strip, and forced to lie in the cold snow while Joubert strangled him. The strangling continued until Joubert's hands got too cold, at which time he switched to stabbing and slicing. Christopher suffered seven antemortem stabbing and slicing wounds, not counting the large cutting wound inflicted when Joubert slit his throat. Christopher remained alert and conscious during this ordeal, gradually lapsed into a coma, and died from loss of blood. Five of the antemortem wounds were in areas of thin skin, but did not penetrate deeply, indicating Christopher had been tortured. These facts support findings of torture, sadism, and extreme suffering of the victim, including extreme psychological terror. We find that these facts establish beyond a reasonable doubt that the "especially heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel" prong would have been applied to Joubert even had the sentencing panel not considered the "exceptional depravity" prong in Christopher's case.

The panel also found that Joubert killed Christopher, in part, to conceal his own identity. The evidence shows that after being abducted, Christopher began to weep. Joubert was touched, and wanted to let the boy go, but decided against it, as he thought Christopher would surely identify him. He therefore decided he must kill Christopher as planned. As discussed above, killing with multiple motives in no way lessens the factual existence of each motive. The evidence shows beyond a reasonable doubt that Joubert decided that he must go through with his plan to kill Christopher in order to conceal his identity as abductor. Thus, the evidence supports the application of this aggravating factor. As a third aggravating circumstance, the sentencing panel found that Joubert had a substantial history of serious assaultive criminal behavior at the time he killed Christopher. The panel relied on Joubert's previous murder of Danny to apply this factor. Even one prior premeditated first-degree murder constitutes a substantial history of serious assaultive criminal behavior, and we find that this aggravator was established beyond a reasonable doubt.

In mitigation in Christopher's case, the panel gave Joubert credit for his guilty plea. It also considered Joubert's sexual fantasies to be an extreme mental disturbance. Again, there was evidence Joubert could control his actions in regard to these fantasies. We find the overwhelming force of the evidence to be that the same penalty would have been imposed even in the absence of the "exceptional depravity" prong of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d). We therefore find any error as to the application of that prong, its subsequent narrowing, or any arguable reweighing done by the Nebraska Supreme Court to have been harmless beyond a reasonable doubt.

B. Improper Application of Aggravating Factors Joubert argued to the district court that the State of Nebraska improperly applied the statutory aggravating factor 29-2523(1)(b), killing to hide the perpetrator's identity, and aggravator 29-2523(1)(a), having a substantial history of serious assaultive criminal behavior, to him. He argues that the evidence does not support their application. When considering a section 2254 petition, we review the factual basis supporting the application of aggravating circumstances under the deferential Jackson v. Virginia sufficiency of the evidence test,11 and reverse only where the evidence is so slim that finding the aggravator amounts to arbitrary and capricious action. See Lewis v. Jeffers, 497 U.S. 764, 783, 110 S.Ct. 3092, 3103, 111 L.Ed.2d 606 (1990). Viewing the evidence most favorably to the state, we affirm if any reasonable factfinder could have found the existence of the aggravators beyond a reasonable doubt. We have already discussed the evidence supporting the application of each of the aggravators in depth and found, de novo, that it established each of these aggravators beyond a reasonable doubt. We must necessarily reach the same conclusion under the Jackson v. Virginia standard. Nonetheless, we elaborate. In Joubert's recitation of the details of both murders, he tells of a point in each where the victims' actions caused him to reconsider his plan to kill them. In both cases, he continued expressly to avoid the boys getting him in trouble by identifying him. Viewing this evidence most favorably to the state, we find it to be such that a reasonable factfinder could find the aggravating circumstance of killing to avoid identification by the victim to be established beyond a reasonable doubt.

In Christopher's case, the panel found that Joubert's murder of Danny amounted to a substantial history of serious assaultive criminal behavior. We find Joubert's argument that only one previous, premeditated, first-degree murder does not amount to a substantial history of serious assaultive criminal behavior to be absurd, and find that this evidence easily satisfies the Jackson standard. Therefore, Joubert's claims as to the improper application of these aggravating factors are without merit.

C. Plea Bargain

Joubert argues that the trial court improperly injected itself into the plea bargaining process by agreeing to accept a plea conditional on the outcome of a suppression hearing and thus coerced his plea. The context of the trial court's statement was the following. Joubert's counsel wanted a suppression hearing before empaneling a jury, but the trial judge feared that due to the gruesome details of the case any such hearing would render empaneling an impartial jury virtually impossible. Counsel insisted that his client would be prejudiced if he had to question jurors as to their attitudes towards confession during voir dire, only to have the confession subsequently suppressed, and that the situation impaired his ability to bargain with the prosecutor. In response, the court told counsel it was tentatively leaning towards denying the pending suppression motion, but clarified that it would have no problem accepting a plea conditional on the outcome of that motion, and that such a plea would not prejudice the court's consideration of that motion. However, Joubert pled guilty unconditionally and no suppression hearing was ever held. Because neither Joubert nor his counsel raised the suppression hearing at the plea proceedings, we review this claim under the plain error standard. See United States v. McBride, 862 F.2d 1316, 1319 (8th Cir.1988).

We fail to see how the trial court's mere indication of its willingness to accept a conditional plea amounts to the court injecting itself into the plea bargaining process. Further, we are perplexed by Joubert's argument that the trial court somehow wronged him by not holding a suppression hearing when his plea was unconditional. That Joubert was unable, for whatever reason, to secure from the prosecution an agreement to a conditional plea, and therefore did not present such a plea to the trial court, in no way renders that court's willingness to accept such a plea, if offered, coercive. We simply do not see any error in these events. Further, the record clearly shows that the trial court alerted Joubert to the fact that an unconditional plea would be the death knell to any suppression hearing, and ascertained that Joubert's confession, as well as his plea, was knowing, voluntary, and uncoerced before accepting either plea.12 Thus, even if there were some error which escapes us, there was no prejudice. This claim is without merit.

D. Ineffective Assistance

This claim is related to the one directly above, in that Joubert argues that his attorney was ineffective for failing to inform him that the court would consider a conditional plea. The evidence as to whether or not Joubert knew the court would accept a conditional plea is conflicting, but the ineffective assistance claim fails for lack of prejudice. To establish ineffective assistance, a petitioner must show both deficient performance and prejudice. Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 687, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 2064, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984). Joubert cannot show prejudice.

As the Supreme Court stated in Lockhart v. Fretwell, a defendant is not entitled to have a court make an error of law, however favorable. 506 U.S. 364, 370, 113 S.Ct. 838, 843, 122 L.Ed.2d 180 (1993). Therefore, failure of a court to make a legal error in the defendant's favor cannot establish prejudice. Id. The record and Joubert's own testimony establish that his confessions were not coerced and should not have been suppressed. Thus, even if Joubert's attorney failed to inform him of the trial court's willingness to accept a conditional guilty plea, and even if that failure amounted to deficient performance under Strickland, Joubert cannot show prejudice, and this claim must fail.

E. Nebraska's Death Penalty Scheme is Facially Arbitrary and Arbitrary as Applied

This claim amounts to an attack on the prosecutorial and sentencing discretion inherent in our system of law, in that actors are permitted to show mercy. Mercy may arise from a favorable plea bargain, from the failure to pursue a death sentence, or from the sentencer's refusal to impose the death sentence even when it would be permissible to do so. However, the Supreme Court has already explicitly rejected the argument that the possibility of prosecutors or sentencers showing mercy renders a death penalty scheme arbitrary. Proffitt v. Florida, 428 U.S. 242 , 254, 96 S.Ct. 2960, 2967, 49 L.Ed.2d 913 (1976); Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153, 199-204, 96 S.Ct. 2909, 2937-39, 49 L.Ed.2d 859 (1976). The Court explained that nothing in the Constitution forbids a decision to grant individual defendants mercy, rather the inquiry into arbitrariness focuses on the system leading to an ultimate denial of mercy. Gregg, 428 U.S. at 199, 96 S.Ct. at 2937. In fact, the Court intimated that a regime with no room for mercy would be alien to our system of law and unconstitutional in itself. Id. at 199-200 n. 50, 96 S.Ct. at 2937-38 n. 50. Therefore, this claim too is without merit.

III. CONCLUSION

For the reasons set out above, we reverse the district court's grant of the writ, and affirm its decisions on all other issues.

*****

BRIGHT, Circuit Judge, dissenting.

I dissent.

The Nebraska law in one of the aggravating circumstances underlying a possible death sentence contains the clause that the "murder ... manifested exceptional depravity by ordinary standards of morality and intelligence."1 Neb.Rev.Stat. § 29-2523(1)(d) (Reissue 1985). The Eighth Circuit has determined that the "exceptional depravity" clause is unconstitutionally vague on its face. See Moore v. Clarke, 904 F.2d 1226, 1228-33 (8th Cir.1990). The appeal by Warden Hopkins on behalf of Nebraska raises three relatively simple, uncomplicated issues.

1. Whether a procedural bar exists to prevent Joubert from presenting his claim in federal court in a habeas application that the above-quoted aggravating circumstance was unconstitutionally vague?

The district court answered "no" to that question. The majority says "yes." I agree with the district court for reasons stated in its decision and as amplified below.

2. Whether, on the merits, the application by the Nebraska sentencing court of the aggravator in question prejudiced Joubert? The district court determined that prejudice existed because the sentencing panel relied heavily on this aggravating circumstance based on the Nebraska sentencing panel's statement as follows:

We recognize that all murders may be characterized as atrocious and cruel, and further recognize there must, of necessity, be some interval of time between even the most savage of knife attacks and a resulting death. We, nevertheless, conclude this aggravating circumstance is applicable with respect to both clauses, recognizing the evidence and factors on the second clause of the aggravating circumstance far outweigh those under the first clause.

We conclude and find beyond a reasonable doubt this aggravating circumstance exists in both crimes for which the defendant is to be sentenced.

Appellant's Addendum, at p. 6 (emphasis in addendum).

I agree with the district court. I read the majority opinion as not in direct disagreement.

The district court found that such greater reliance on the unconstitutionally vague prong rendered the death sentence infirm under Stringer v. Black, 503 U.S. 222, 232, 112 S.Ct. 1130, 1137, 117 L.Ed.2d 367 (1992) (use of an invalid aggravator in a weighing state amounts to an impermissible thumb on death's scale). While we might agree with the district court's Stringer concerns, we reverse on other grounds.

Maj. op. at 1240.

3. Whether the error is harmless? The majority finesses the prejudicial impact of the unconstitutional aggravator by asserting that the unconstitutional imposition of the aggravator is "harmless error." Maj. op. at 1245-47. The majority's harmless error analysis does not relate to the aggravator here in question, but instead concludes that the application of other aggravating circumstances requires the death penalty.

The majority's determination of harmless error cannot stand. We have stated that:

Rather, the issue under Chapman [Chapman v. California, 386 U.S. 18, 87 S.Ct. 824, 17 L.Ed.2d 705 (1967) ] is whether the sentencer actually rested its decision to impose the death penalty on the valid evidence and the constitutional aggravating factors, independently of the vague factor considered; in other words, whether what was actually and properly considered in the decision-making process was "so overwhelming" that the decision would have been the same even absent the invalid factor.

Williams v. Clarke, 40 F.3d 1529, 1541 (8th Cir.1994).

The Chapman standard for harmless error as reiterated in Williams cannot be met in light of the sentencing panel's heavy reliance on the "exceptional depravity" clause.

My further discussion follows.

1. Exceptional Depravity Clause Invalidity

Joubert's sentencing panel noted that the exceptional depravity aggravating circumstance "describes in the disjunctive two [separate situations] which may ... operate in conjunction with ... or independent of one another" distinguishing the first "heinous, atrocious or cruel" clause (which focuses on the victim's perspective) from the second "exceptional depravity" clause (focusing on the defendant's state of mind as manifested by his conduct, characterized here by the planning and repetitive nature of the murders). Joubert's sentencing panel concluded "this aggravating circumstance is applicable with respect to both clauses, recognizing the evidence and factors on the second clause of the aggravating circumstance far outweigh those under the first clause." In defining the second "exceptional depravity" clause, the sentencing panel relied on the Nebraska Supreme Court's definition in State v. Moore, 210 Neb. 457, 316 N.W.2d 33 (1982).

On appeal, the Nebraska Supreme Court agreed with the sentencing panel in both the factual findings and conclusions of law as to the construction of section 29-2523(1)(d). State v. Joubert, 224 Neb. 411, 399 N.W.2d 237, 250-51 (1986).

The Eighth Circuit has since granted habeas relief in the Moore case, determining that this second "exceptional depravity" clause or prong was unconstitutionally vague, and that the facially-vague statute had not then been salvaged by the Nebraska Supreme Court's construction of it. See Moore v. Clarke, 904 F.2d 1226, 1228-33 (8th Cir.1990). As the district court concluded, and the majority seems to concede, see infra, maj. op. at 1240, the sentencing panel's greater reliance on the unconstitutionally vague "exceptional depravity" prong could make Joubert's death sentence infirm under Stringer v. Black, 503 U.S. 222, 232, 112 S.Ct. 1130, 1137, 117 L.Ed.2d 367 (1992) (using invalid aggravator in weighing state amounts to impermissible thumb on death's scale). See also Joubert, 399 N.W.2d at 252 (balancing of aggravating circumstances against mitigating circumstances not merely matter of number counting, but rather requires careful weighing of various factors and reasoned judgment as to which factual circumstances require imposition of death and which can be satisfied by life imprisonment in light of totality of circumstances).

2. Exceptional Depravity Issue on Direct Appeal

In his direct appeal, Joubert challenged the sentencing panel's imposition of section 29-2523(1)(d). The federal district court concluded that due process was inherent in the analysis of that issue. I believe that the vagueness issue was raised in Joubert's direct appeal brief. In his brief to the Nebraska Supreme Court, Joubert extensively quoted from the definitions of both prongs one and two of section 29-2523(1)(d) contained in State v. Moore, 210 Neb. 457, 316 N.W.2d 33 (1982)--the same definitions employed by his sentencing panel. (See Appellant's Appendix at 66-67.) He argued that the "exceptional depravity" prong, as defined by the Nebraska Supreme Court in Moore, "pertaining to the state of mind of the perpetrator, would apply to any perpetrator of a first degree (premeditated) murder[,]" and in fact, "would apply equally to all persons convicted of premeditated murder." (Appellant's Appendix at 67-68.) He argued that, as in State v. Hunt, 220 Neb. 707, 371 N.W.2d 708 (1985), nothing appeared in this case beyond the ordinary circumstances which attend any death-dealing violence, see Appellant's Appendix at 68, implying there was nothing to distinguish this from other capital cases in which the death sentence was not imposed.

Because Joubert in a substantial way asserted a vagueness claim before the state court on direct appeal, the majority errs in concluding that Joubert is procedurally barred from asserting these claims in his federal habeas petition. See Smith v. Lockhart, 921 F.2d 154, 156 n. 3 (8th Cir.1990); see also Anderson v. Harless, 459 U.S. 4, 6, 103 S.Ct. 276, 277, 74 L.Ed.2d 3 (1982) (per curiam) (habeas petitioner must have fairly presented to state courts "substance" of his federal claim); Rust v. Hopkins, 984 F.2d 1486, 1491 (8th Cir.) (finding specific references in brief more than sufficient to deem issue fairly presented and court need not consider cause and prejudice), cert. denied, --- U.S. ----, 113 S.Ct. 2950, 124 L.Ed.2d 697 (1993).

In his concurring opinion, Nebraska Supreme Court Chief Justice Krivosha responded to Joubert's vagueness claim, and asserted that Joubert misunderstood State v. Hunt. See Joubert, 399 N.W.2d at 253. Although Justice Krivosha focused his response upon the first "especially heinous" prong of section 29-2523(1)(d), see id. 399 N.W.2d at 253-57, his opinion seems to acknowledge Joubert's challenge to the second "exceptional depravity" prong, but does not discuss the phrase "exceptional depravity" because Chief Justice Krivosha suggests that "exceptional depravity" is simply a further factor in determining "especially heinous." Joubert, 399 N.W.2d at 258. In my view, that discussion is sufficient to indicate that the Nebraska Supreme Court Justices in essence recognized and rejected sub silentio Joubert's "exceptional depravity" vagueness claim.

I also briefly address the comments in the majority opinion, maj. op. at 1240, that perhaps the Nebraska Supreme Court may have narrowed the statutory language of "exceptional depravity." The Nebraska Supreme Court did not contend it was narrowing the definition used by the sentencing panel; rather, it wholeheartedly adopted the panel's factual findings and conclusions of law regarding the construction of section 29-2523(1)(d), notwithstanding its references to State v. Palmer, 224 Neb. 282, 399 N.W.2d 706 (1986), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 872 , 108 S.Ct. 206, 98 L.Ed.2d 157 (1987). See Joubert, 399 N.W.2d at 251. The Appellant Warden Hopkins does not suggest that the Nebraska Supreme Court cured the constitutional defect by reweighing on direct appeal; instead, the appellant asserts that, even if the district court was correct in granting the writ, it erred in its alternative to habeas relief, requiring a remand to the sentencing court rather than to the Supreme Court of Nebraska for appropriate remedial action of reweighing or harmless error analysis. (Appellant's Br. at pp. 42-44.)

3. Harmless Error

Finally, the majority determines that even if Nebraska's "reweighing" were improper, any error would be harmless beyond a reasonable doubt. I disagree. As we observed in Moore v. Clarke, 904 F.2d at 1228, the Nebraska Supreme Court itself traditionally has not applied a harmless error analysis in cases where an aggravating circumstance is found to have been invalidly applied. See State v. Bird Head, 225 Neb. 822, 408 N.W.2d 309, 319-20 (1987) (reversing and remanding where error in sentencing panel's determination that beyond a reasonable doubt aggravating circumstance existed); State v. Jones, 213 Neb. 1, 328 N.W.2d 166, 174 (1982) (death sentence must be reversed and cause remanded where invalid aggravating circumstance applied). But cf. State v. Reeves, 239 Neb. 419, 476 N.W.2d 829, 837 (1991) (relying on Clemons to conduct harmless error review, but concluding error not harmless beyond reasonable doubt). Where the state usually rejects such an analysis, I think it inappropriate for this court to assert harmless error where life or death hang in the balance. The district court analyzed harmless error in part as follows:

Greatly significant is the fact that the sentencing panel found that the evidence and factors relating to the second prong that was later declared unconstitutionally vague "far outweigh[ed]" those relating to the first prong. (Ex. 18 (R.) at 46.)

....

[I]n a case remarkably similar to Joubert, the Eighth Circuit affirmed the district court's granting of a writ of habeas corpus based on the unconstitutional vagueness of the second portion of aggravating circumstance (1)(d). Moore, 904 F.2d at 1234. In Moore, the sentencing panel relied on the second, but not on the first, portion of aggravating circumstance (1)(d). Id. at 1229. After an extensive discussion regarding the unconstitutionality of the second portion of (1)(d), Id. at 1229-33, the Eighth Circuit affirmed the district court's conclusion that Moore be "resentenced to life imprisonment unless the State initiated capital resentencing proceedings within a reasonable time after judgment became final." Id. at 1228. Regarding the Eighth Circuit's decision to affirm the district court, the Eighth Circuit stated:

Since the Nebraska death penalty statute requires that aggravating and mitigating circumstances be weighed against each other, Neb.Rev.Stat. § 29-2522, and the Nebraska Supreme Court does not apply a harmless error analysis in cases where an aggravating circumstance is found to have been invalidly applied, Moore's sentence would have to be vacated for new sentencing proceedings.

Id. at 1228.

The Court finds that in the Joubert case, the death sentences have been "infected," Id., by an unconstitutionally vague factor. In determining that aggravating circumstance (1)(d) applied, the sentencing panel specifically stated that "the evidence and factors on the second clause of the aggravating circumstances far outweigh those under the first clause." (Ex. 18 (R.) at 46.) This Court is bound to recognize the Nebraska Supreme Court's characterization of Nebraska law relating to the imposition of the death penalty. Stringer, 503 U.S. at 230, 112 S.Ct. at 1137. The Nebraska Supreme Court has stated that aggravating circumstance (1)(d) is comprised of two separate, disjunctive circumstances which may operate either together or independently. See, e.g., Reeves, 476 N.W.2d at 838. However, the Nebraska Supreme Court has instructed that the process of weighing aggravating and mitigating circumstance should not consist of a mere counting of aggravating factors, but rather the process should entail a very careful examination and weighing of the factors, given the totality of the circumstances. Id. at 836 (quoting Victor, 457 N.W.2d at 447); Stewart, 250 N.W.2d at 862-63.

Appellant's Addendum at pp. 6, 7, 8 and 9.

The district court found the error to have "tainted" the sentence. Appellant's Addendum at p. 8. That finding establishes prejudice. Under the guise of harmless error, the majority it seems has reweighed the sentencing factors. Reweighing, however, is a task for the Nebraska courts.

In sum, Joubert's death sentence cannot stand. I would affirm the district court's grant of habeas relief changing Joubert's sentence to life imprisonment without possibility of parole unless the Nebraska state courts provide appropriate post-sentencing or resentencing procedures.

*****

* Chief Judge Richard S. Arnold and Judge McMillian would grant the suggestion for rehearing en banc 1 Joubert was later convicted of that murder in unrelated proceedings. State v. Joubert, 603 A.2d 861 (Me.1992) 2 Under Nebraska law, statutory aggravator 29-2523(1)(d) has two prongs. The first is that the murder was "especially heinous, atrocious, [and] cruel" as that phrase has been narrowed by the Nebraska Supreme Court. The second is that the murder "manifested exceptional depravity by ordinary standards of morality and intelligence" as that phrase has been narrowed by the Nebraska Supreme Court. Proving either prong beyond a reasonable doubt establishes the existence of aggravator 29-2523(1)(d). See, e.g., State v. Reeves, 239 Neb. 419, 476 N.W.2d 829, 838 (1991), cert. denied, 506 U.S. 837 , 113 S.Ct. 114, 121 L.Ed.2d 71 (1992); State v. Joubert, 224 Neb. 411, 399 N.W.2d 237, 249 (1986), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 905 , 108 S.Ct. 247, 98 L.Ed.2d 205 (1987) 3 Despite the district court's characterization of the issue, in the context of capital punishment, vagueness is properly analyzed under the Eighth, not the Fourteenth, Amendment. See Maynard v. Cartwright, 486 U.S. 356, 360-61, 108 S.Ct. 1853, 1857, 100 L.Ed.2d 372 (1988) 4 With limited exceptions, a new rule will not be applied retroactively in federal habeas litigation. Teague v. Lane, 489 U.S. 288, 109 S.Ct. 1060, 103 L.Ed.2d 334 (1989) 5 Precedent dictates the result in a given case when the outcome is not "susceptible to debate among reasonable minds." Butler v. McKellar, 494 U.S. 407, 415, 110 S.Ct. 1212, 1217, 108 L.Ed.2d 347 (1990). Thus, Maynard was found to be dictated by existing precedent (Godfrey ) to such an extent that reasonable minds could not disagree as to the outcome 6 See Williams, 40 F.3d at 1535 (Nebraska is a weighing state) 7 The district court, in granting habeas relief, did not acknowledge that the Nebraska Supreme Court had applied a properly narrowed definition on appeal 8 In Walton, the United States Supreme Court held that the test the Arizona Supreme Court had developed in State v. Gretzler, 135 Ariz. 42, 659 P.2d 1, 11-12, cert. denied, 461 U.S. 971 , 103 S.Ct. 2444, 77 L.Ed.2d 1327 (1983) for its "especially depraved manner" aggravating circumstance overcame any constitutional vagueness concerns. See Lewis v. Jeffers, 497 U.S. 764, 776-78, 110 S.Ct. 3092, 3099-3101, 111 L.Ed.2d 606 (1990) (Walton decision established validity of entire 5-factor Gretzler test). The Nebraska Supreme Court adopted the Gretzler test as its own when narrowing "exceptional depravity" in State v. Palmer, 224 Neb. 282, 399 N.W.2d 706, 731-32 (1986), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 872 , 108 S.Ct. 206, 98 L.Ed.2d 157 (1987). And it is that narrowed test which the Nebraska Supreme Court said it applied to Joubert. Joubert, 399 N.W.2d at 251 9 Under certain circumstances, state appellate court reweighing may result in a deprivation of due process. Clemons, 494 U.S. at 754 & n. 5, 110 S.Ct. at 1451 & n. 5; Rust v. Hopkins, 984 F.2d 1486 (8th Cir.), cert. denied, --- U.S. ----, 113 S.Ct. 2950, 124 L.Ed.2d 697 (1993) 10 The author of this opinion, speaking for himself only, does not agree with the dissent's contention, infra, at 1251, that "Appellant Warden Hopkins does not suggest that the Nebraska Supreme Court cured [any] constitutional defect by reweighing on direct appeal." In this regard, see Appellant's Brief, pp. 7, 28-34 11 Under the Jackson v. Virginia standard, a court reviews "the evidence in the light most favorable to the prosecution [to determine whether] any rational trier of fact could have found the essential elements ... beyond a reasonable doubt." 443 U.S. 307, 319, 99 S.Ct. 2781, 2789, 61 L.Ed.2d 560 (1979) 12 At the plea hearing, Joubert testified that the police had promised him nothing and had informed him of his rights, in detail, before he confessed. Further, Joubert's counsel, in response to the court's searching questioning as to the voluntariness and admissibility of the confessions, stated that the confessions were clearly admissible 1 The full statutory aggravating factor in question contains two clauses and reads, "The murder was especially heinous, atrocious, cruel, or manifested exceptional depravity by ordinary standards of morality and intelligence." Neb.Rev.Stat. § 29-2523(1)(d)


87 F.3d 966

John J. Joubert, Appellant,
v.
Nebraska Board of Pardons, Donald B. Stenberg, Attorney General of the State of Nebraska, Individually and in His Official Capacity; E. Benjamin Nelson, Governor of the State of Nebraska, Individually and in His Official Capacity; Scott A. Moore, Secretary of State of the State of Nebraska, Individually and in His Official Capacity; Frank X. Hopkins, Warden of the Nebraska State Penitentiary, Individually and in His Official Capacity, Appellees. Docket number: 96-2688

Federal Circuits, 8th Cir. June 27, 1996

Before BEAM, BRIGHT, and LOKEN, Circuit Judges. BEAM, Circuit Judge.

John J. Joubert appeals the district court's1 order denying temporary and permanent injunctive relief under 42 U.S.C. 1983, based on alleged constitutional violations relating to the procedures, conduct, and makeup of the Nebraska Board of Pardons (Board). We affirm the district court and deny Joubert's emergency application for an injunction pending appeal.

I. BACKGROUND

Joubert, currently in the custody of the State of Nebraska under two sentences of death for murdering two boys in 1983, is scheduled to be executed at 12:01 a.m. CDT on June 28, 1996. The facts of Joubert's case and his various legal challenges can be found in other opinions including Joubert v. Hopkins, 75 F.3d 1232 (8th Cir.1996) and thus we need not fully recount them here.

At 4:15 p.m. on June 26, 1996, the Board unanimously denied, without a hearing, Joubert's application for commutation of his capital sentences and dissolved the previously issued stay of execution triggered by the application. Prior to the Board's decision, Joubert filed this section 1983 action in federal district court, seeking a temporary restraining order and preliminary injunction prohibiting his execution until the merits of his complaint were decided. Joubert's section 1983 claim alleged three constitutional violations. First, he asserted that the Board failed to comply with the requirement that Joubert's commutation application "shall be considered" under Neb.Rev.Stat. § 83-1,129(2) (Reissue 1994), and thus violated his procedural due process rights as guaranteed by the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. Second, Joubert contended that the Board failed to comply with its own procedural provisions, as set out in Rule 004.05 of the Nebraska Pardons Board Policy and Procedure Guidelines, by attempting to limit the testimony presented in the event a hearing were granted thereby violating his procedural due process rights. Third, Joubert argued that the makeup of the Board, which included the Attorney General of the State of Nebraska (A.G.),2 violated Joubert's substantive due process rights under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments because the A.G.'s dual role as prosecutor and arbiter rendered the clemency process fundamentally unfair. Joubert also asserted that the A.G.'s participation violated Joubert's Eighth Amendment right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment.

The district court dismissed Joubert's complaint and denied his motion for a temporary restraining order. The district court entered its order prior to the Board's decision to deny Joubert's commutation application. After concluding it had jurisdiction, the district court held that Joubert failed to demonstrate the violation of a constitutional right, a requirement in a section 1983 claim. Joubert appeals the district court's order and requests an injunction prohibiting his execution until the merits of his appeal are decided.

II. DISCUSSION

On appeal, Joubert makes the same three arguments that he made to the district court. We first address Joubert's assertion that the Board violated his procedural due process rights by failing to consider his commutation application. It is well-established that prisoners have no constitutional or fundamental right to clemency. Connecticut Bd. of Pardons v. Dumschat, 452 U.S. 458, 463-64, 101 S.Ct. 2460, 2463-64, 69 L.Ed.2d 158 (1981); Otey v. Stenberg, 34 F.3d 635, 637 (8th Cir.1994). Moreover, " '[w]hen a commutation statute does not impose standards constraining the discretion of the board as to when clemency must be granted, the statute does not create a constitutional right or entitlement sufficient to invoke the Due Process Clause.' " Otey v. Stenberg, 34 F.3d at 637 (quoting Whitmore v. Gaines, 24 F.3d 1032, 1034 (8th Cir.1994)). Such is the case here. The Nebraska statute governing the operation of the Board gives the Board "unfettered discretion to grant or deny a commutation of a lawfully imposed sentence for any reason or for no reason at all." Otey v. State, 240 Neb. 813, 485 N.W.2d 153, 166 (1992). The Nebraska statute requires only that an application requesting the Board to exercise its pardon authority "shall be considered with or without a hearing by the board at its next regular scheduled meeting." Neb.Rev.Stat. § 83-1,129(2) (Reissue 1994). Therefore, the only interest created by the Nebraska statute is "the right to ask for mercy." Otey v. Stenberg, 34 F.3d at 637 (emphasis added).

Joubert asserts that the Board did not actually consider his commutation application because its members were predisposed to deny it. To support this assertion, Joubert relies upon various statements made by Board members to the media, in which they expressed skepticism as to the likelihood of granting Joubert's commutation application or request for a hearing. Although these statements might reflect the members' predisposition, such predisposition does not mean that the members failed to fulfill their statutorily imposed duty to consider the application. On June 26, 1996, the Board did in fact consider Joubert's application and decided to deny it without a hearing. Such action is within the Board's discretion. Furthermore, we are bound by our prior decision in Otey v. Stenberg in which we determined that the Nebraska clemency statute "does not create a protectable interest in the manner in which the Board receives [a] request or in having unbiased decisionmakers on the Board." Id. If the Nebraska clemency statute does not create an interest in having unbiased decisionmakers on the Board, it certainly does not create an interest in having a commutation application considered by Board members without predispositions about the prisoner's likelihood of success.3 We conclude, therefore, that the Board met its statutorily imposed duty to consider Joubert's commutation application and thus he has failed to demonstrate a violation of any constitutionally protected interest on which to base his section 1983 claim.

Joubert next contends that a member of the Board violated his procedural due process rights by seeking to limit the testimony presented to the Board in the event a hearing were granted. Since we have already determined that no procedural due process right accrues, this contention is without merit. In any event we note that Joubert points to Rule 004.05 of the Nebraska Pardons Board Policy and Procedure Guidelines which states that an applicant sentenced to death "shall receive three hours for presentation of information and argument to the Board." This rule, however, only applies if the Board decides to grant a hearing. In the present case, the Board denied Joubert's request for a hearing and thus Rule 004.05 is inapplicable. Moreover, Joubert's argument is speculative, at best, because a hearing was never held. Furthermore, even if a hearing had been held, we have no way of knowing whether the full Board would have adopted that member's recommendations and limited the testimony. Therefore, Joubert's section 1983 claim fails because he did not establish a right deserving of constitutional protection, given that no hearing was held.

Finally, Joubert contends that the participation of the A.G. in the clemency process violates Joubert's substantive due process rights because the A.G. served in dual roles of both prosecutor and arbiter. This argument fails, however, in light of our prior decision in Otey v. Stenberg, in which we held that due process never attached to clemency proceedings because the only right created under Nebraska law, which does not impose any limits or standards on the Board, is the right to ask for clemency. 34 F.3d at 637-38. As noted above, Joubert has no right to a Board consisting of unbiased decisionmakers. Id. at 637. Therefore, Joubert's section 1983 claim based on this alleged substantive due process violation also fails. We have considered Joubert's remaining arguments, including his Eighth Amendment claim, and find them to be without merit.

III. CONCLUSION

Because Joubert failed to prove that the Board's conduct, proceedings, or makeup violated a constitutionally protected right, his section 1983 claim must fail. Accordingly, we affirm the district court's order and deny Joubert's emergency application for an injunction pending appeal.

*****

1 The Honorable William G. Cambridge, Chief Judge, United States District Court for the District of Nebraska

2 The Board currently consists of three members: Governor E. Benjamin Nelson; Secretary of State Scott A. Moore; and Attorney General Donald B. Stenberg. Neb.Rev.Stat. § 83-1,126 (Reissue 1994); see also Neb. Const. art. IV, § 13

3 Joubert's attempt to distinguish Otey v. Stenberg from the present case on the ground that, unlike Joubert, Otey was given a hearing before his application was denied lacks merit because the Board may deny the application "with or without a hearing." Neb.Rev.Stat. § 83-1,129(2) (Reissue 1994)


SERIAL-KILLER-CALENDAR-this-day-in-serial-killer-history

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Serial Killers
 

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THE WORLD FAMOUS SERIAL KILLER MAGAZINE

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Ted Bundy, was one of the world's most vile and sadistic killers. He claimed never to commit these crimes however until weeks before he was executed. This DVD includes the two very rare last interviews where Bundy spills the beans and tells all. With amazing cover art by Johnny machine!

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Known as the "Bedroom Basher," serial rapist Gerald Parker thought he had gotten away with murder until DNA testing linked him to the murder of five women and an unborn child in Orange County, California. Police and Navy officials believe Gerald might be responsible for even more killings.

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Known as the "Bedroom Basher," serial rapist Gerald Parker thought he had gotten away with murder until DNA testing linked him to the murder of five women and an unborn child in Orange County, California. Police and Navy officials believe Gerald might be responsible for even more killings.

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Rare Charles Manson Interview

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Rare Charles Manson Interview

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Female Tabloid reporter Penny Daniels interviews Manson.

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Ron Reagan interviews Charles Manson

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Charles Manson 1980's Interviews With Tom Snyder, Penny Daniels, Charlie Rose, Nuel Emmons, Geraldo Rivera. This DVD is approx. 4 hr 20 mins Interesting, Great Research Material.

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Unedited footage of the entire interview Leslie Van Houten gave in 1977 after she was granted a re-trial (she eventually was convicted after a third trial in 1978: 7 years to life.) conducted inside the prison. Unique material.

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Rare 1993 interview with Manson family member Patricia Krenwinkel

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This DVD contains the first 2 hours of 4 hours of raw footage of KTLA from the UCLA archives.

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RARE INTERROGATION OF MANSON FAMILY CONFIDANT. Interrogation by Inyo Co. Sheriffs and the Dig for Bodies at Barker Ranch.

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SERIAL KILLER & CULT LEADER DVD MEGA SETS

COMPLETE SERIAL KILLER ULTIMATE DVD SET

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COMPLETE JEFFREY DAHMER DVD SET

This 4 DVD collectors set includes: 1. Jeffrey Dahmer - Confessions of a Serial Killer 2. Rare Jeffrey Dahmer Television Appearances, 3. Horror in Milwaukee (hours of rare Jeffrey Dahmer footage and original news clips), and 4. Rare Footage of the Jeffrey Dahmer Trial.

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COMPLETE CHARLES MANSON INTERVIEW DVD SET

This 9 DVD collectors set includes: 1. THE BEST OF CHARLES MANSONS 1980 INTERVIEWS, 2. Manson Interview with GERALDO RIVERA (RARE UNCUT PRISON INTERVIEW TAKEN BY GUARDS) , 3. Manson Interview with ED SANDERS, 4 Manson Interview with PENNY DANIELS , 5. Manson Interview with RON REAGAN JR, 6. Manson Interview with CHARLIE ROSE, 7. Manson Interview with TOM SNYDER, 8. Manson Interview with BILL STOUT, and 9. The UNCUT CHARLES MANSON SUPERSTAR INTERVIEW.

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COMPLETE CHARLES (MANSON) IN CHARGE DVD SET

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FEATURED SERIAL KILLER ARTICLE

PEOPLE WHO HAVE SURVIVED VICIOUS SERIAL KILLERS

By Lori Bell

Most people remember the names of infamous serial killers. Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer, John Wayne Gacy --- these names and more ring unwanted through our collective psyche, their crimes too horrendous to ignore. However, very few remember the names of the victims of these depraved individuals, perhaps because most never live to tell their tale.

In some cases, though, there are those who are fortunate enough to escape the clutches of madness. Their stories serve as lessons in survival that we can all learn from, lessons that could very well have saved a life.

Maria Viricheva:

Three months pregnant and unmarried, 19 – year – old Maria Viricheva was working as a saleswoman at the time of her encounter with one of Russia’s most notorious serial killers --- Alexander Pichuskin. Known by the seemingly bizarre name “The Chessboard Killer,” this deranged individual set out to kill as many people as there are spaces on a chessboard. He later refuted this claim, confessing that had he not been caught, he would have continued killing indeterminately.

Attracted to the idea of having the power over the life or death of another person, Pichuskin explained that he felt like God when he was carrying out the murders. He would end the lives of his victims with a hammer blow to the head. Chillingly he is quoted as saying, “I killed in order to live because when you kill, you want to live.”

Maria was new at her job and had been set up with it by her boyfriend, who was also the father of her child. Earlier that day, the two had gotten into an argument,  and afterward she found herself distraught in a metro station in Moscow. Pichuskin spied Maria, and noting her obvious state of despair, struck up a conversation with her. Maria, desperate and alone, welcomed the company.

Hearing of her situation, Pichuskin offered her a chance to earn some additional money, telling her that he had stashed some stolen cameras in a well in nearby Bittsevsky Park, and that he would give her some to sell. Even though it was late in the evening, Maria not even knowing if her job would be there in the morning anyway, agreed to go with him to retrieve the cameras.

When they arrived at the spot, Pichuskin lifted the cover from the well and told her to look inside. As she did so, he quickly snatched her up and threw her in. She clung to the sides of the well to avoid falling, but Pichuskin grabbed her head and repeatedly slammed it into the side of the well. She had little choice but to let go. The last thing she heard was her killer yell, “take a bath there!” as she plummeted into the darkness.

She tumbled over 30ft. before landing knee – deep in sewage water that was rapidly flowing down a drain pipe. She was caught in the current, and only by swiftly removing her jacket and boots, did she manage to place her hands and feet on the sides of the drain and stop her further decent. Had she not done so, she would have reached the end of the drain pipe to a section that was completely filled with water and drowned.

Fortunately, she stopped herself near another well leading up from the drain pipe and managed to climb to the top, only to find that she was too weak to push the well cover open above her. Luckily, a passing woman heard her cries for help and saw the well cover raise a bit as Maria tried to pry it open, and the woman ran to alert security guards. They lifted the well cover and pulled Maria to safety.

Unbelievably, the police refused to investigate the incident and forced Maria to sign a statement saying that she had fallen down the well herself. She was only brought in to identify her attacker when he was finally apprehended under suspicion of 48 murders. Had the police done their job the first time, many lives might have been saved.

Viricheva is one three people known to have survived attacks by Pichuskin. One survivor has no recollection of the attack because of the head injury Pichuskin inflicted, while the third was a homeless boy, Mikhail Lobov, who was 14 when Pichuskin threw him down the well. He submitted written testimony to the court. He said he tried to tell police about Pichuskin but that they would not listen to a homeless boy.

Pichuskin told the court that he almost had a nervous breakdown when he saw Maria Viricheva near her apartment about six months after the attack. Pichuskin is serving the first part of his sentence, which he must spend in solitary confinement.

Whitney Bennett:

Young Whitney Bennett could not have known that leaving her bedroom window unlocked before she went to bed on the night of July 4, 1985, would lead to her being viciously attacked. This innocent mistake would lead her to a night of pure horror and a lifetime of suffering. That night Richard Ramirez, also known as The Night Stalker, crept through her bedroom window and savagely beat her with a tire iron before ransacking her room and taking all the valuables.

The only thing the young girl could be thankful for was that the first few blows quickly rendered her unconscious, though the strangulation marks which were on her neck after the attack indicated that luck was truly on her side that night. Two nights later, Ramirez perpetrated an almost identical attack against another woman, Joyce L. Nelson, in her home. This time, the attack was fatal.

The crime scene Ramirez left behind him was covered in Whitney’s blood, and his bloody shoe print was found on her comforter. The distinctive print also turned up at many other Night Stalker crime scenes. One such bloody shoe print was found on the left cheek of Joyce L. Nelson. He had also carelessly left the tire iron on her bedroom floor. As for Whitney Bennett, she was left with permanent scarring from the attack and had to undergo extensive cosmetic surgery.

It was her testimony that helped convict Ramirez of his crimes during his trial and ensured that he received the death sentence. Ramirez was on trial for 13 murders in Los Angeles County. The self – proclaimed devil worshipper from El Paso, also faced 30 other felony counts stemming from the series of nighttime attacks in 1984 and 1985. He faced a 14th murder charge in San Francisco, and an attempted murder and sexual assault charges in Orange County. He ended up dying in prison of natural causes at the age of 53 before the execution could take place.

Rhonda Williams:

After 40 years of silence, Rhonda Williams decided that enough was enough and finally worked up the courage to tell of her twisted involvement with one of Houston’s most notorious serial killers. Dean Corll, and his younger accomplice, Elmer Wayne Henley, we’re responsible for the murders of 29 young boys, all lured into Corll’s clutches for the purpose of satisfying his sadistic sexual urges.

Dean Arnold Corll exclusively targeted teenage boys. He worked from 1965 to 1968 in his family’s candy company, giving him his horrid nickname, “The Candy Man.” He lured many if his victims with free candy and also free alcohol and Marijuana.  His rampage lasted from 1970 to 1973, during which he befriended two wayward accomplices, David Brooks, and Elmer Henley.

Rhonda Williams had befriended Henley during her teenage years and thought Henley was someone she could trust. Growing up in an atmosphere of severe abuse and neglect, she was often beaten by her alcoholic father and was even raped repeatedly as a toddler.

In August 1973, she placed her trust in Henley once again as he snuck up to her bedroom window to help her escape another episode of abuse at the hands of her father. Another boy, Tim Kerley, was waiting in the car for them and the three drove away to what Williams thought was safety. Had she known Henley’s true motives, she certainly would have decided against letting him “rescue” her.

The trio arrived at Corll’s home, where they partied until they passed out. Williams woke to a scene of unimaginable horror. She and two other boys were bound hand and foot. Corll began kicking and screaming for her to wake up, then he and Henley took the other two captives to another room and lashed them both to what can only be described as “torture boards.”  Naively, she still believed that Henley would not let her be hurt, even as she heard the screams of her captive companions.

Her trust was finally broken when Henley told her that he would have to shoot her before the ordeal was over. However, something in Henley finally broke, and instead he turned the gun on Corll and shot him dead, saving the lives of all the captives.  Then Henley reached for the phone and called police.

Williams survived her night of horror thanks to the conscience of her friend, and although he was jailed for a short time she made a promise to him to remain silent about her ordeal from then on, only to speak about it publicly four decades later. Henley, still in prison for his role in luring victims to Corll, remains in contact with Williams to this day.

Teresa Thornhill :

Robert Black was a convicted child murderer and pedophile, who claimed four young victims in Scotland between the 1970s and 1990s. Teresa Thornhill was one of the few known survivors of his attacks. Black was convicted in 1994 of the murders of 11 – year – old Susan Maxwell from the Scottish Borders, five – year – old Caroline Hogg, from Edinboro,  and Sarah Harper, 10 from Morley near Leeds.

On a warm day in April 1988, Teresa, 15 at the time, was walking home when she caught the eye of Black, who was parked in a van by her house. Faking car trouble as he exited the back of his van, Black asked the young girl if she knew anything about engines. When she approached, he grabbed her and placed one hand over her mouth, pinned her arms by her sides, and tried to pull her into his van through the back doors. She screamed and bit his arm, causing him to drop her just as a friend in the neighborhood came running to help, scaring Black off. After her frightening experience she ran to her home and her parents called the police. But it was already too late --- Black had already disappeared.

Two years passed and the young girl remained traumatized by her experience, almost never going outside. She was one of the witnesses to testify against him at his trial, where he was convicted of the three murders and her kidnapping, receiving a life sentence for his crimes. While still in prison, he was convicted of killing his fourth victim, a nine – year –old girl. To this day, police are still investigating his case and suspect him of many more murders.

Black has long been the prime suspect in the disappearance of 13 – year – old, Genette Tate, who was last seen on a country lane in Aylesbeare, Devon, in 1978. No trace of the newspaper delivery girl has ever been found.

Teresa Thornhill says, “I can still see Robert Black’s face every day.”

Tali Shapiro:

Eleven – year – old, Tali Shapiro didn’t like taking the bus, so almost every day she would walk to school from her home in West Hollywood. On a September morning in 1969, the young girl’s decision to walk the short distance to her school would prove to be a costly mistake.

While walking down South Boulevard that morning, Rodney Acala approached her in his vehicle and asked her if she wanted a ride. She refused, saying that she was not allowed to talk to strangers. He assured her that he knew her family and told her that he had a beautiful picture to show her. Though wary, she approached his car. That’s the last thing she remembers from that morning. Luckily, another man saw the abduction and called the police.

Rodney Acala became known as, “The Dating Game Killer,” after appearing as a contestant on the Dating Game show during the midst of his murder spree. Posing as a professional photographer, Acala took over 1,000 disturbing photographs of women. While none of these individuals have been positively identified as a missing person or unsolved homicide victim, there may come a time when they are realized as casualties of the Dating Game Killer.

When the police arrived at his door, Acala tried to stall them by claiming that he was  in the  shower, forcing them to kick the door in. Acala escaped out the back door and the officers found young Tali on the floor of his apartment in a state of near death, with a metal bar across her neck, as if Acala had just been pinning her down when they arrived. The young girl was also found to have been sexually assaulted. She was rushed to the hospital and thankfully, survived her atrack.

Tali Shapiro was the second person to testify for jurors who were considering the death penalty for Acala, who was convicted of killing four Los Angeles County  women and a 10 – year – old Huntington Beach ballet student. Like many brave victims recounted in this article, Tali Shapiro later testified against her assailant, helping to convict him. He was sentenced to death.

Acala, who had been representing himself, asked if she remembered him apologizing to her when she testified at an earlier trial. She said she did not.  “I sincerely regret and apologize for my despicable actions that day,” was the apology he made. Shapiro did not respond.

Rose Steward:

Although Rose Steward has every justification for hating Dean Carter, in an incredible act of forgiveness, she actively campaigns to spare from the death penalty for her rape and the murders of five other people.

On March 29, 1984, Steward was woken up by an intruder holding a knife to her neck. Over the next five hours she was repeatedly raped and tortured by him, losing consciousness twice during the attack. She only managed to survive ordeal by pretending to “like” her attacker, even going so far as to kiss him, which caused him to leave without taking her life. When her nightmare was finally over, she immediately sought help from a neighbor, who contacted the police. Carter went on to rape and strangle five other women throughout California over the next 18 days, and it was Steward’s testimony in part, that helped prosecutors ensure that he received the death penalty for his crimes.

After her assault, Steward started sleeping on her living room floor. She kept a loaded gun under her pillow --- even after Carter was arrested during a traffic stop a month later with his victim’s belongings in his car.

During their first courtroom encounter --- Steward said she managed to stare down Carter and felt stronger as a result. Steward worried about how the victim’s families would regard her. She had come to know the slain women --- Jillette Lenora Mills, 25, Susan Lynn Knoll, 25, Bonnie Ann Gunthrie, 34, Janette Anne Cullins, 24, and Tok Chum Kim, 42, --- as “sisters” and saw herself as their voice.

Would their families resent her for living while their loved one’s died? Could she have prevented their murders by doing something differently? Did he kill because he realized she had tricked him and decided to leave no more witnesses? The loved ones of the other victims did not blame her. They were kind and warm.

As he now sits on death row awaiting his fate, Steward herself has actively campaigned against the death penalty, supporting what is known as California Proposition 34, a ballot to replace all death sentences with sentences of life without parole. Some of the other victim’s families are understandably shocked by her decision. This has left Steward torn between her belief that the death penalty is wrong, and her personal understanding of her fellow victim’s pain. Only time will tell if Rose Steward will be there to see Carter’s last day.

Bryan Hartnell:

While Bryan Hartnell was attending school at Pacific Union College in San Francisco in the late 1960s, he had no idea that his bright future would forever be scarred by one truly horrifying day. After driving to a scenic lake in a remote part of the city with his girlfriend, Cecilia Shephard, the couple parked their car and planned to enjoy their day in privacy. Unbeknownst to them, the unknown man who would later be dubbed the Zodiac Killer had other plans for them.

While they remained in their car, a man wearing a black hood and a shirt with cross hairs etched on the front, approached the couple and forced them out of the car at gunpoint. After forcing them to the ground, he proceeded to stab both of them repeatedly. Then he just vanished, leaving them for dead. Cecilia was later able to provide a description of the killer before she died in the hospital. Bryan however, never saw his face and thus was left with the frustration of not knowing who it was that took the life of the one he loved.

Hartnell was stabbed 8 times, his companion, Cecilia, between 10 and 20. She died a day later at the hospital. Investigators say it was one of the most brutal attacks they’ve ever seen. They believe the Zodiac used a knife so passersby wouldn’t hear the sound of gunshots. Following the attack the Zodiac Killer calmly walked away leaving intentional clues as to his identity. He wanted to make it clear there was a serial killer on the loose. The Zodiac craved attention.

Thankfully, the years that passed healed Hartnell’s wounds not only physically, but emotionally as well.  Bryan is now a probate attorney and is married with a family of his own. The Zodiac Killer remains unidentified to this day and is still one of the most enduring crime mysteries of the 20th century.

Corazon Attenza:

It was Corazon Attenza, a 23 – year – old exchange nurse from the Phillipines, who opened the door to her apartment on the night of July 13, 1966, and unknowingly allowed brutal mass murderer, Richard Speck, into her and her roommates’ lives. The first thing she noticed about him was the strong smell of alcohol. She also saw the small gun he had pulled from his black jacket. She was also the only one that survived that terrifying night.

Richard Speck committed all his murders in one day, sneaking into a housing facility for student nurses and stabbing eight of them to death. Speck’s savagery evoked world – wide horror and headlines --- and left a terrifying legacy: the growing fear that Americans weren’t save anymore, even in their own homes.

Gun in hand, Speck forced his way into the home and herded the girls into the common room. He sliced some of the bed sheets into makeshift ropes and bound them all tightly. At first, he didn’t harm the women, telling them he just wanted some money, and that he would leave them alone. After a short while, though, one by one, Speck proceeded to rape, stab and mutilate them while Corazon, wracked with fear, hid under the beds in the room. At one point, one of her friends was being assaulted on the bed directly above her.

The attacks went on for almost six hours, with Corazon not daring to even whimper the entire time. Finally, at around five in the morning, it was over. Due to Speck being highly intoxicated at the time of the attacks, he apparently forgot about her and left the apartment after he thought his work was finished. She escaped the scene of carnage through a bedroom window after he left, and screamed for help. Her cries were heard by her neighbors and her waking nightmare came to an end.

Due to the overwhelming amount of physical evidence Speck had left at the scene --- and the fact that he had an extensive criminal record already --- he was caught shortly afterward when he checked himself into a local hospital after attempting suicide. He had slashed his wrists after learning that he’d left Corazon alive, and a doctor at the hospital recognized him from newspaper reports and contacted the police. Nine months later, a jury took only 49 minutes of deliberation to sentence him to the electric chair. His sentence was later overturned by the Supreme Court in 1972 and he was given eight consecutive terms of 50 to 150 years.

On December 5, a part of the terror ended when Speck, 49, died of a heart attack in a hospital near Joliet, Illinois, where he had been held for 24 years. Cremated by the state, and never showing any remorse for his crimes, Speck took with him the horror of those crimes.

Larry Flynt:

Larry Flynt is famous as the outspoken and flamboyant publisher of Hustler magazine, and the creator of a business empire. He is also famous for nearly being assassinated by one, Joseph Paul Franklin, in an attempt that left Mr. Flynt paralyzed from the waist down, when he was hit by two bullets from Franklin’s high powered rifle.

What is not commonly known is that Mr. Flynt’s assailant was a serial killer who was tried and convicted for eight murders across the United States between 1977 and 1980, though he claimed to have killed a dozen more in an attempt to start a “race war” in the country. Franlkin, a member of the Ku Klux Klan, and a Neo – Nazi, spoke of “being at war.” Flynt was a direct contradiction to Franklin’s highly religious beliefs and his moral stance against pornography, particularly the interracial deceptions that were featured in Hustler at the time. It was on March 6, 1978, that both Mr. Flynt and his lawyer were shot by Franklin, who confessed in prison after being sentenced for another shooting in which he received the death penalty.

Though Larry Flynt, who was left in constant pain, could have understandably wished to see his assailant die, he actually lobbied for Franklin’s sentence to be commuted to life in prison due to his stance against the death penalty itself. To quote him exactly: “In all the years since the shooting, I have never come face –to – face with Franklin. I would love an hour in a room with him and a pair of wire – cutters and pliers, so I could inflict the same damage on him that he inflicted on me. But, I do not want to kill him, nor do I want to see him die …I just don’t think that the government should be in the business of killing people. And I  think punishment by putting someone in a three – by – six cell, is a lot greater than if you snuff out their life in a few seconds with a lethal injection.”

Flynt filed a motion with the American Civil Liberties  Union in an effort to have Franklin’s sentence commuted to be life behind bars. Despite Flynt’s best efforts, Joseph Franklin was executed in November 2013. Franklin made no statement before his execution, but told CNN during an interview that he was no longer racist, had found religion, and repented.

Rebecca Garde:

Rebecca Garde worked as a telemarketer in Seattle in 1982. She had just gotten off work and was tired of waiting out in the rain for her bus, so she decided to hitchhike home on a cold night in November. The man who eventually offered her a ride seemed as ordinary as the Dodge pickup he was driving, so she happily accepted his offer. Had she known that he would eventually be convicted of killing 48 women like her, she might have declined instead. She had no way of knowing that the driver was Gary Ridgway, the Green River Killer, one of the most prolific serial killers. She didn’t know the terror he had in store for her.

While riding in his vehicle, she offered him sex in exchange for $20, figuring she could use the money to buy weed when she got home. It was at this point that she began to get an odd feeling about the man she was with, so as a precaution, she asked to see his identification, which he agreed to. This put her a little more at ease --- at least he wasn’t a cop. They parked by a trailer park and the man suggested they go into the woods for some privacy.  Once they reached a spot that was relatively secluded, Gary Ridgway attacked, and tried to strangle her to death from behind. Fighting him off by pushing him into a tree, she stunned him and ran to a nearby trailer for help. Her attacker immediately fled the scene.

Due to her lifestyle and a general fear of the police, Garde waited nearly two years after her attack before she contacted the authorities, and though her forthcoming would not lead directly to his capture, it did help law enforcement build a more solid case around the most prolific killer in the United States. Ridgway picked up and killed at least 15 more women in the same area along the Pacific Highway South, where he attacked Garde. Her description of him at least gave them something to move on.

The majority of Ridgway’s victims were teenage girls who had left tough or abusive homes, turning to the streets where they supported drug habits through prostitution. In 2001, Ridgway was finally apprehended and sentenced to life in prison. At the time of their brief initial encounter, Garde said she thought Ridgway seemed odd. At 5’11”, and 150lbs, he wasn’t very imposing, though she remembers that his hands were large and his eyes small. Most of all, she said, “I remember the look in his eyes.” Rebecca Garde remains his only known surviving victim.

We could never imagine the horror that these victims felt during their ordeals but, the exhilaration of escape must have been mind boggling too. Although they are “survivors,” their turmoil continues as they struggle everyday with the memories of how close they were to becoming a statistic. Their brave efforts saved lives and calmed fears of many, and brought to light the identities of the many victims who lost their battle with evil.



 
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